Skip to main content
Log in

What makes the satellite-based EVI–GPP relationship unclear in a deciduous broad-leaved forest?

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Ecological Research

Abstract

Recent studies have suggested that gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial vegetation can be estimated directly with the satellite-based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). However, the reported EVI–GPP relationships showed wide variability, with the regression functions showing widely scattered data. In the present study, we examined the possible reasons for this variability in the EVI–GPP relationship using daily EVI values from satellite and field measurements and daily flux-based GPP in a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in Japan. The variability appears to be caused by noise due to cloud contamination in the satellite data as well as the different seasonality of EVI and GPP, especially during the leaf-expansion period. Our findings indicate that improvement of cloud screening and consideration of the leaf-expansion period are critical when applying the EVI–GPP relationship.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Huete A, Didan K, Miura T, Rodriguez EP, Gao X, Ferreira LG (2002) Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices. Remote Sens Environ 83:195–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huete AR, Didan K, Shimabukuro YE, Ratana P, Saleska SR, Hutyra LR, Yang W, Nemani RR, Myneni R (2006) Amazon rainforests green-up with sunlight in dry season. Geophys Res Lett 33:L06405. doi:10.1029/2005GL025583

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li Z, Yu G, Xiao X, Li Y, Zhao X, Ren C, Zhang L, Fu Y (2007) Modeling gross primary production of alpine ecosystems in the Tibetan Plateau using MODIS images and climate data. Remote Sens Environ 107:510–519

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mo W, Lee M-S, Uchida M, Inatomi M, Saigusa N, Mariko S, Koizumi H (2005) Seasonal and annual variations in soil respiration in a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in Japan. Agric For Meteorol 134:81–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muraoka H, Koizumi H (2005) Photosynthetic and structural characteristics of canopy and shrub trees in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaved forest: implication to the ecosystem carbon gain. Agric For Meteorol 134:39–59

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muraoka H, Koizumi H (2009) Satellite Ecology (SATECO)-linking ecology, remote sensing and micrometeorology, from plot to regional scale, for the study of ecosystem structure and function. J Plant Res 122(1):3–20

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nishida K (2007) Phenological Eyes Network (PEN): a validation network for remote sensing of the terrestrial ecosystems. AsiaFlux Newslett Issue 21:9–13 (available online at http://www.asiaflux.net/)

  • Ohtsuka T, Akiyama T, Hashimoto Y, Inatomi M, Sakai T, Jia S, Mo W, Tsuda S, Koizumi H (2005) Biometric based estimates of net primary production (NPP) in a cool-temperate deciduous forest stand beneath a flux tower. Agric For Meteorol 134:27–38

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olofsson P, Lagergren F, Lindroth A, Lindström J, Klemedtsson L, Kutsch W, Eklundh L (2008) Towards operational remote sensing of forest carbon balance across Northern Europe. Biogeosciences 5:817–832

    Google Scholar 

  • Rahman AF, Sims DA, Cordova VD, El-Masri BZ (2005) Potential of MODIS EVI and surface temperature for directly estimating per-pixel ecosystem C fluxes. Geophys Res Lett 32:L19404. doi:10.1029/2005GL024127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saigusa N, Yamamoto S, Murayama S, Kondo H, Nishimura N (2002) Gross primary production and net ecosystem exchange of a cool-temperate deciduous forest estimated by the eddy covariance method. Agric For Meteorol 112:203–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saigusa N, Yamamoto S, Murayama S, Kondo H (2005) Inter-annual variability of carbon budget components in an AsiaFlux forest site estimated by long-term flux measurements. Agric For Meteorol 134:4–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sims DA, Rahman AF, Cordova VD, El-Masri BZ, Baldocchi DD, Flanagan LB, Goldstein AH, Hollinger DY, Misson L, Monson RK, Oechel WC, Schmid HP, Wofsy SC, Xu L (2006) On the use of MODIS EVI to assess gross primary productivity of North American ecosystems. J Geophys Res 111:G04015. doi:10.1029/2006JG000162

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sjöström M, Ardö J, Eklundh L, El-Tahir BA, El-Khidir HAM, Hellström M, Pilesjö P, Seaquist J (2009) Evaluation of satellite based indices for gross primary production estimates in a sparse savanna in the Sudan. Biogeosciences 6:129–138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waring RH, Running SW (2007) Advances in eddy-flux analyses, remote sensing, and evidence of climate change. In: Forest ecosystems: analysis at multiple scales. Elsevier and Academic Press, Boston, pp 317–344

  • Wu W, Wang S, Xiao X, Yu G, Fu Y, Hao Y (2008) Modeling gross primary production of a temperate grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China, using MODIS imagery and climate data. Sci China Ser D Earth Sci 51(10):1501–1512

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wu JB, Xiao XM, Guan DX, Shi TT, Jin CJ, Han SJ (2009) Estimation of the gross primary production of an old-growth temperate mixed forest using eddy covariance and remote sensing. Int J Remote Sens 30(2):463–479

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xiao X, Hollinger D, Aber J, Goltz M, Davidson EA, Zhang Q, Moore BIII (2004a) Satellite-based modeling of gross primary production in an evergreen needleleaf forest. Remote Sens Environ 89:519–534

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xiao X, Zhang Q, Braswell B, Urbanski S, Boles S, Wofsy S, Moore B III, Ojima D (2004b) Modeling gross primary production of temperate deciduous broadleaf forest using satellite images and climate data. Remote Sens Environ 91:256–270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xiao X, Zhang Q, Hollinger D, Aber J, Moore B III (2005) Modeling gross primary production of an evergreen needleleaf forest using MODIS and climate data. Ecol Appl 15(3):954–969

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yamamoto S, Murayama S, Saigusa N, Kondo H (1999) Seasonal and inter-annual variation of CO2 flux between a temperate forest and the atmosphere in Japan. Tellus 51B:402–413

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank K. Kurumado and Y. Miyamoto (River Basin Research Center, Gifu University), for their assistance in the field and T. M. Saitoh (River Basin Research Center, Gifu University), M. Ishihara (National Institute for Environmental Studies) and H. Morimoto (Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University) for their helpful comments. We thank the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center in the Earth Observing System Data Gateway and the NASA Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System for providing the MODIS data. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their kind and constructive comments. This study was supported by the Global Environment Research Fund (S-1: Integrated study for terrestrial carbon management of Asia in the 21st century based on scientific advancement) of the Ministry of Environment of Japan, a grant from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (Satellite Ecology, the 21st Century COE Program at Gifu University) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) A3 Foresight Program. Support for technical advice and data collection at the Takayama site was provided by the Phenological Eyes Network (PEN).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shin Nagai.

About this article

Cite this article

Nagai, S., Saigusa, N., Muraoka, H. et al. What makes the satellite-based EVI–GPP relationship unclear in a deciduous broad-leaved forest?. Ecol Res 25, 359–365 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-009-0663-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-009-0663-9

Keywords

Navigation