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Detection and characteristics of the gubernacular tract in supernumerary teeth on cone beam computed tomography



The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and visualization of supernumerary teeth (ST) and imaging characteristics of their gubernacular tract (GT) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).


Presence and visualization of ST were retrospectively evaluated using 960 CBCT images. The imaging characteristics of GT were analyzed to determine various presentations of GT according to type, shape, and orientation of ST.


ST were radiographically detected in 93 patients, for a prevalence of 9.7%. Premolar shaped ST were more common (p = 0.003). GT was detected in 104 (77.2%) of impacted ST and mostly found straight in shape (49.0%). It was most frequently observed in peridens (n = 51, 49.0%) followed by mesiodens (n = 41, 39.4%) and more frequently seen in premolar-like ST (n = 44, 42.3%). The mean length of the GT in mandible was 2.8 mm, the mean length of the GT in maxilla was 1.0 mm (p < 0.001). The mean angle of the GT in mandible was 17.0, and the mean angle of the GT in maxilla was 43.0 (p = 0.004).


CBCT can be used for evaluations in dental practice to provide comprehensive information about ST and their GT characteristics. Clinicians should be able to identify the characteristics of GTs on CBCT for dental treatments, especially traction and extraction of ST.

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Correspondence to Ayse Zeynep Zengin.

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This study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University (OMU KAEK 2021/547). All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008 (5).

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Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

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Zengin, A.Z., Rizeli, L. & Sumer, A.P. Detection and characteristics of the gubernacular tract in supernumerary teeth on cone beam computed tomography. Oral Radiol 39, 292–300 (2023).

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  • Supernumerary tooth
  • Gubernacular tract
  • Cone beam computed tomography