The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the radiological features of periosteal reactions (PR) and histopathological features of the lesions.
A total of 4605 CBCT images were evaluated and they were classified according to their radiological differential diagnosis. Images with pathologies were listed according to their histopathological examinations as cystic lesions, benign tumours, malignant tumours, fibro-osseous lesions and osteonecrosis, while images without pathologies were listed as traumas and others. All groups were reclassified as with or without the presence of detected PR.
Pathologies and traumas were detected in 1801 of 4605 patients. There were 3 PR in 1140 cystic lesions, 4 PR in 102 benign tumours, 16 PR in 43 malignant tumours, 67 PR in 156 osteonecrosis/osteomyelitis cases and 3 PR in 262 trauma cases. As a result of the chi-square test between groups, there was a significant relationship between histopathologic diagnoses and periosteal reaction patterns (p = 0.000).
Although there is a significant overlap between the patterns of PRs, PRs can be used to narrow the possibilities in the differential diagnosis. However, PRs alone are not sufficient variables for differential diagnosis in the absence of cortical bone destruction, localization, clinical and systemic findings.