Skip to main content

Antenna Design: Micro Strip Patch for Spectrum Utilization in Cognitive Radio Networks

A Correction to this article was published on 31 March 2021

This article has been updated

Abstract

A micro strip patch antenna with multiple parasitic patches for Cognitive Radio Network applications is presented to enhance the bandwidth. Multiple resonances are used for the design of antenna, with a view to broaden bandwidth. A modified Koch Fractal antenna is imprinted from micro strip radiating patch. A Parasitic Strip line helps to grasp micro hertz communication through antenna. A slotted patch energized by a gap feed was established before with a large angular coverage over a bandwidth of 13.1%. In this paper, it is proposed that multiple parasitic patches are potential for cognitive radio applications where circular patch (CP) covers bandwidth of 85% with radiation pattern for Spectrum Utilization (SU) and CP with meander lines feeding behaves as communication antenna operating at Wireless Local Area Network 802.11y (3.637 GHz). The transceiver in a communication network is powered by Proposed Antenna, to acquire improved energy efficiency of 95.7%. Thus, throughput and SU have been improved, a model of antenna has been fabricated and its radiation patterns, return losses were achieved which shows fine consistency with simulated results.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22

Change history

References

  1. Lee, H., Li, E. S., Jin, H., Li, C., & Chin, K. (2019). 60 GHz wideband LTCC micro strip patch antenna array with parasitic surrounding stacked patches. IET Microwaves Antennas & Propagation, 13(1), 35–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. He, S., Qi, C., Wu, Y., & Huang, Y. (2016). Energy-efficient transceiver design for hybrid sub-array architecture MIMO systems. IEEE Access, 4, 9895–9905.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Hussain, R., Sharawi, M. S., & Shamim, A. (2018). 4-Element concentric pentagonal slot-line-based ultra-wide tuning frequency reconfigurable MIMO antenna system. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 66(8), 4282–4287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ge, L., Li, M., Wang, J., & Gu, H. (2017). Unidirectional dual-band stacked patch antenna with independent frequency reconfiguration. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 16, 113–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Zhao, X., Riaz, S., & Geng, S. (2019). A reconfigurable MIMO/UWB MIMO antenna for cognitive radio applications. IEEE Access, 7, 46739–46747.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Sengupta, S., & Subbalakshmi, K. P. (2013). Open research issues in multi-hop cognitive radio networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 51(4), 168–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Liu, B., Qiu, J., Lan, S., & Li, G. (2019). A wideband-to-narrowband rectangular dielectric resonator antenna integrated with tunable band pass filter. IEEE Access, 7, 61251–61258.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Jiang, Y., Zou, Y., Ouyang, J., & Zhu, J. (2018). Secrecy energy efficiency optimization for artificial noise aided physical-layer security in OFDM-based cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 67(12), 11858–11872.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Lei, H., Xu, M., Ansari, I. S., Pan, G., Qaraqe, K. A., & Alouini, M. (2017). On secure underlay MIMO cognitive radio networks with energy harvesting and transmit antenna selection. IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, 1(2), 192–203.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. AlQahtani, S., & Alotaibi, A. (2019). A route stability-based multipath QoS routing protocol in cognitive radio ad hoc networks. Wireless Networks, 25, 2931–2951.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS), Version 14.0., Ansoft, Pittsburgh, PA.

  12. Aboufoul, T., Alomainy, A., & Parini, C. (2012). Reconfiguring UWB monopole antenna for cognitive radio applications using GaAs FET switches. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 11, 392–394.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Chaurasia, R. K., Vishal Mathur, R. L., Pareekh, M. T., & Srivastava, V. K. (2018). A computational modeling of micro strip patch antenna and its solution by RDTM. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 57(3), 1877–1881.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kornprobst, J., Wang, K., Hamberger, G., & Eibert, T. F. (2017). A mm-wave patch antenna with broad bandwidth and a wide angular range. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 65(8), 4293–4298.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Xia, R., Qu, S., Yang, S., & Chen, Y. (2018). Wideband wide-scanning phased array with connected backed cavities and parasitic striplines. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 66(4), 1767–1775.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Wang, L., Guo, Y., & Sheng, W. (2013). Wideband high-gain 60-GHz LTCC L-probe patch antenna array with a soft surface. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 61(4), 1802–1809.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Hojjati, S. H., Ebrahimzadeh, A., Najimi, M., & Reihanian, A. (2016). Sensor selection for cooperative spectrum sensing in multi antenna sensor networks based on convex optimization and genetic algorithm. IEEE Sensors Journal, 16(10), 3486–3487.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Fu, Y., & He, Z. (2019). Bhattacharyya distance criterion based multi bit quantizer design for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks. Wireless Networks, 25, 2665–2674.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Li, S., Tang, L., Hu, H., et al. (2020). Uplink low power based radio resource management in wireless heterogeneous networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 111, 2391–2405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Dayo, Z. A., Cao, Q., Wang, Y., et al. (2020). A compact broadband high gain antenna using slotted inverted omega shape ground plane and tuning stub loaded radiator. Wireless Personal Communications, 113, 499–518.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Singh, A., Mehra, R. M., & Pandey, V. K. (2020). Design and optimization of microstrip patch antenna for UWB applications using Moth–Flame optimization algorithm. Wireless Personal Communications, 112, 2485–2502.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by ECE of Thiagarajar College of Engineering Madurai, TN, India. They provided expertise and assistance in terms of software and encouragement. The Owner hereby Grants to the Journal a worldwide, irrevocable, non-exclusive, royalty free license to publish, and to archive the Work.

Funding

No funding was received for this article.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MSC (Corresponding Author) has written the manuscript with guidance of TA and she has contributed in reviewing manuscript, NM has done revising it to the best level.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Suresh Chinnathampy.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

We ensure and approve that the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all authors are the primary consideration of the research paper.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The original online version of this article was revised due to a retrospective Open Access cancellation.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Suresh Chinnathampy, M., Aruna, T. & Muthukumaran, N. Antenna Design: Micro Strip Patch for Spectrum Utilization in Cognitive Radio Networks. Wireless Pers Commun 119, 959–979 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-021-08232-6

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-021-08232-6

Keywords

  • Micro strip patch antenna
  • Bandwidth
  • Cognitive radio networks
  • Spectrum utilization
  • Throughput
  • Circular patch