Spread application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), has led many researchers aiming at energy optimization in these networks. The Proposed Energy Efficient Harmony Search Routing Algorithm (PEEHSRA) in accordance with a novel energy model is stated in this study to minimize the amount of energy consumption in WSNs. We first proposed an energy model on the basis of modulation scheme parameters for multi-hop transmission. Then, in order to develop a harmony search routing algorithm, pitch adjustment rate in the harmony memory was introduced based on both, the proposed energy model, and the node’s distance. Also, an energy-efficient fitness function was determined, which results in the most energy-efficient route for the network. At the end, four modulations including MQAM, MQPSK, OQPSK and MFSK were applied and the most energy-efficient one with corresponding parameters was specified. By comparing the results of the proposed method to the state-of-the-art studies, the improvements in extending the lifetime of the network was proved. These findings seem quite useful in designing an energy-efficient multi-hop WSN and pave the way for enhancement of the widespread applications in these networks.
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Zardosht, M.J., Parhizgar, N. Energy Optimization in Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks based on Proposed Harmony Search Routing Algorithm. Wireless Pers Commun 118, 2717–2731 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-021-08151-6