Skip to main content

DCA-DS: A Distributed Clustering Algorithm Based on Dominating Set for Internet of Vehicles


In this paper, we propose a new Distributed Clustering Algorithm Based on Dominating Set (DS) for Internet of Vehicles, called DCA-DS. To construct the DS, DCA-DS algorithm introduces a new parameter, called node span, which represents the number of the node neighbours that are not unclustered, including the node itself. DCA-DS algorithm is based on a simple heuristic method that uses a greedy strategy, where the node having the largest span is included in the DS, therefore it acts as new CH and all its neighbours become Cluster Members (CMs). This process repeats iteratively until there are no unclustered nodes left. Moreover, the node, which can hear two CHs or more, will act as Cluster Gateway (CG). Furthermore, DCA-DS algorithm takes care of the maintenance phase to keep clusters stability and structure. The proposed approach is implemented in NS-2 network simulator and VanetMobiSim mobility simulator to evaluate its performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. Sharma, S., & Kaushik, B. (2019). A survey on internet of vehicles: Applications, security issues and solutions. Vehicular Communications, 20(5), 1–44.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Senouci, O., Aliouat, Z., & Harous, S. (2019). A review of routing protocols in internet of vehicles and their challenges. Sensor Review, 39(1), 58–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Alouache, L., Nguyen, N., Aliouat, M., & Chelouah, R. (2018). Survey on IoV routing protocols: Security and network architecture. Sensor Review, 32(2), e3849.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Kaiwartya, O., Abdullah, H., Cao, Y., Altameem, A., Prasad, M., Lin, C.-T., et al. (2016). Internet of vehicles: Motivation, layered architecture network model challenges and future aspects. IEEE Access, 9, 5356–5373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ang, L., Seng, K. P., Ijemaru, G. K., & Zungeru, A. M. (2019). Deployment of IoV for smart cities: Applications, architecture, and challenges. IEEE Access, 7, 6473–6492.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Senouci, O., Zibouda, A., & Harous, S. (2017). Survey: Routing protocols in vehicular Ad Hoc networks. In Proceedings of the second international conference on advanced wireless information, data, and communication technologies (pp. 8:1-8:6), AWICT ’17, ACM, Paris, France.

  7. Cooper, C., Franklin, D., Ros, M., Safaei, F., & Abolhasan, M. (2017). A comparative survey of VANET clustering techniques. IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, 19(1), 657–681.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Senouci, O., Harous, S., & Aliouat, Z. (2020). Survey on VANET clustering algorithms: Overview, taxonomy, challenges, and open research issues. In International Journal of Communication Systems (pp. e4402).

  9. Aadil, F., Ahsan, W., & Rehman, Z. D. (2018). Clustering algorithm for internet of vehicles (IoV) based on dragonfly optimizer (CAVDO). The Journal of Supercomputing, 74, 4542–4567.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Zhang, Z., Boukerche, A., & Pazzi, R. (2011). A novel multi-hop clustering scheme for vehicular Ad-hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM international symposium on mobility management and wireless access (pp. 19–29), MobiWac ’11, ACM, New York, NY, USA.

  11. Cokuslu, D., Erciyes, K., & Dagdeviren, O. (2006). A dominating set based clustering algorithm for mobile Ad Hoc networks. Computational Science, 59, 571–578.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  12. Wu, J., & Li, H. (2001). A dominating-set-based routing scheme in Ad Hoc wireless networks. Telecommunication Systems, 18(1), 13–36.

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  13. Cha, S., Ryu, M., Kim, K., & Jeon, B. (2013). Applying connected dominating set to broadcasting in vehicular Ad Hoc networks. In 2013 International conference on information science and applications, ICISA ’13.

  14. Shi, Y., Xu, X., Lu, C., & Chen, S. (2016). Distributed and weighted clustering based on d-Hop dominating set for vehicular networks. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 10, 1661–1678.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Togou, M. A., Hafid, A., & Khoukhi, L. (2016). SCRP: Stable CDS-based routing protocol for urban vehicular Ad Hoc networks. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 17(5), 1298–1307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Senouci, O., Aliouat, Z., & Harous, S. (2019). MCA-V2I: A multi-hop clustering approach over vehicle-to-internet communication for improving VANETs performances. Future Generation Computer Systems, 96, 309–329.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Chinnasamy, A., Sivakumar, B., Selvakumari, P., & Suresh, A. (2019). Minimum connected dominating set based RSU allocation for smartCloud vehicles in VANET. Cluster Computing, 22, 12795–12804.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Tran, T., Nguyen, T., & An, B. (2019). An efficient connected dominating set clustering based routing protocol with dynamic channel selection in cognitive mobile Ad Hoc networks. Electronics, 8(11), 1–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Senouci, O., Harous, S., & Aliouat, Z. (2018). An efficient weight-based clustering algorithm using mobility report for IoV. In 2018 9th IEEE annual ubiquitous computing, electronics and mobile communication conference, UEMCON ’18, IEEE, New York, NY, USA.

  20. Jallu, R. K., Prasad, P. R., & Das, G. K. (2017). Distributed construction of connected dominating set in unit disk graphs. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 104, 159–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Fu, D., Hafid, A., Han, L., Yang, Z., & Jhang, S. (2016). A greedy algorithm on constructing the minimum connected dominating set in wireless network. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 12, 1–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Xie, J., Nie, Y., & Liu, W. (2018). A greedy path-based algorithm for traffic assignment. Transportation Research Record, 2672(48), 36–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. The network simulator NS-2,\_Page. (Accessed on 13 September 2018) [Online].

  24. Fiore, M., Harri, J., Filali, F., & Bonnet, C. (2007). Vehicular mobility simulation for VANETs. In 40th annual simulation symposium, ANSS ’07.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Saad Harous.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Senouci, O., Aliouat, Z. & Harous, S. DCA-DS: A Distributed Clustering Algorithm Based on Dominating Set for Internet of Vehicles. Wireless Pers Commun 115, 401–413 (2020).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • IoV
  • Clustering
  • Dominating set