Internet of Things (IoT), Applications and Challenges: A Comprehensive Review


During recent years, one of the most familiar names scaling new heights and creating a benchmark in the world is the Internet of Things (IoT). It is indeed the future of communication that has transformed things (objects) of the real-world into smart objects. The functional aspect of IoT is to unite every object of the world under one common infrastructure; in such a manner that humans not only have the ability to control those objects; but to provide regular and timely updates on the current status. IoT concepts were proposed a couple of years ago and it may not be incorrect to quote that this term has become a benchmark for establishing communication among objects. In context to the present standings of IoT, a comprehensive review of literature has been undertaken on various aspects of IoT, i.e., technologies, applications, challenges, etc. This paper evaluates various contributions of researchers in different areas of applications. These papers were investigated on various parameters identified in each application domain. Furthermore, existing challenges in these areas are highlighted. Future research directions in the field of IoT have also been highlighted in the study to equip novel researchers in this area to assess the current standings of IoT and to improve upon them with innovative ideas.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11


  1. 1.

    Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2010). The Internet of Things: A survey. Computer Networks, 54(15), 2787–2805.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Agrawal, S., & Vieira, D. (2013). A survey on Internet of Things. Abakós, 1(2), 78–95.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., & Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29(7), 1645–1660.

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Said, O., & Masud, M. (2013). Towards internet of things: Survey and future vision. International Journal of Computer Networks, 5(1), 1–17.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Perera, C., Zaslavsky, A., Christen, P., & Georgakopoulos, D. (2014). Context aware computing for the internet of things: A survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 16(1), 414–454.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Madakam, S., Ramaswamy, R., & Tripathi, S. (2015). Internet of Things (IoT): A literature review. Journal of Computer and Communications, 3(05), 164.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Al-Fuqaha, A., Guizani, M., Mohammadi, M., Aledhari, M., & Ayyash, M. (2015). Internet of things: A survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17(4), 2347–2376.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Whitmore, A., Agarwal, A., & Da Xu, L. (2015). The Internet of Things—A survey of topics and trends. Information Systems Frontiers, 17(2), 261–274.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Anagnostopoulos, T., Zaslavsky, A., Kolomvatsos, K., Medvedev, A., Amirian, P., Morley, J., et al. (2017). Challenges and opportunities of waste management in IoT-enabled smart cities: A survey. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Computing, 2, 275–289.

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ngu, A. H., Gutierrez, M., Metsis, V., Nepal, S., & Sheng, Q. Z. (2017). Iot middleware: A survey on issues and enabling technologies. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 4(1), 1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Singh, S., Sharma, P. K., Moon, S. Y., & Park, J. H. (2017). Advanced lightweight encryption algorithms for IoT devices: Survey, challenges and solutions. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, 4, 59.

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Verma, S., Kawamoto, Y., Fadlullah, Z., Nishiyama, H., & Kato, N. (2017). A survey on network methodologies for real-time analytics of massive IoT data and open research issues. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 19, 1457–1477.

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Ma, H.-D. (2011). Internet of things: Objectives and scientific challenges. Journal of Computer science and Technology, 26(6), 919–924.

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Abou-Zahra, S., Brewer, J., & Cooper, M. (2017). Web standards to enable an accessible and inclusive internet of things (IoT). In Proceedings of the 14th Web for All Conference on The Future of Accessible Work, ser. W4A ’17 (pp. 9:1–9:4). New York, NY: ACM.

  15. 15.

    Welbourne, E., Battle, L., Cole, G., Gould, K., Rector, K., Raymer, S., et al. (2009). Building the internet of things using RFID: The RFID ecosystem experience. IEEE Internet Computing, 13(3), 48–55.

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Zhang, M., Sun, F., & Cheng, X. (2012). Architecture of internet of things and its key technology integration based-on RFID. In 2012 Fifth International Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Design (ISCID) (Vol. 1, pp. 294–297). IEEE.

  17. 17.

    Elkhodr, M., Shahrestani, S., & Cheung, H. (2013). The Internet of things: Vision & challenges. In 2013 IEEE TENCON Spring Conference (pp. 218–222). IEEE.

  18. 18.

    Mainetti, L., Patrono, L., & Vilei, A. (2011). Evolution of wireless sensor networks towards the internet of things: A survey. In 2011 19th International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks (SoftCOM) (pp. 1–6). IEEE.

  19. 19.

    Columbus, L. (2015). Roundup of Internet of things forecasts and market estimates. In Forbes, Vol. 27.

  20. 20.

    Linden, A., & Fenn, J. (2017). Understanding Gartner’s hype cycles. Strategic Analysis Report \(N^{\underline{o}}\) R-20-1971. Gartner, Inc.

  21. 21.

    Juels, A., Rivest, R.L., & Szydlo, M. (2003). The blocker tag: Selective blocking of RFID tags for consumer privacy. In Proceedings of the 10th ACM conference on Computer and communications security (pp. 103–111). ACM.

  22. 22.

    Gonzalez, G. R., Organero, M. M., & Kloos, C. D. (2008). Early infrastructure of an internet of things in spaces for learning. In Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 2008. ICALT’08 (pp. 381–383). IEEE.

  23. 23.

    Santucci, G. (2010). The internet of things: Between the revolution of the internet and the metamorphosis of objects. In Vision and Challenges for Realising the Internet of Things, pp. 11–24.

  24. 24.

    Weber, R. H., & Weber, R. (2010). Internet of Things (Vol. 12). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Medeiros, E. S., & Fravel, M. T. (2003). China’s new diplomacy. Foreign Aff., 82, 22.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Meddeb, A. (2016). Internet of things standards: Who stands out from the crowd? IEEE Communications Magazine, 54(7), 40–47.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Kuyoro, S., Osisanwo, F., & Akinsowon, O. (2015). Internet of things (IoT): An overview. In 3rd International conference on advances in engineering sciences & applied mathematics, pp. 53–58.

  28. 28.

    Bell, C. (2016). The Internet of things and data. In MySQL for the Internet of Things (pp. 1–28). Springer.

  29. 29.

    Hodges, S., Taylor, S., Villar, N., Scott, J., Bial, D., & Fischer, P. T. (2013). Prototyping connected devices for the Internet of things. Computer, 46(2), 26–34.

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Evans, M., Noble, J. J., & Hochenbaum, J. (2013). Arduino in action. Manning.

  31. 31.

    Shajahan, A. H., & Anand, A. (2013). Data acquisition and control using Arduino-Android platform: Smart plug. In 2013 International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (ICEETS) (pp. 241–244). IEEE.

  32. 32.

    Tso, F. P., White, D. R., Jouet, S., Singer, J., & Pezaros, D. P. (2013). The glasgow raspberry pi cloud: A scale model for cloud computing infrastructures. In 2013 IEEE 33rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW) (pp. 108–112). IEEE.

  33. 33.

    Wilkinson, G. (2014). Digital terrestrial tracking: The future of surveillance. In DEFCON, Vol. 22.

  34. 34.

    Babin, B. J., & Zikmund, W. G. (2015). Exploring marketing research. Cengage Learning.

  35. 35.

    Dominikus, S., Aigner, M., & Kraxberger, S. (2010). Passive RFID technology for the internet of things. In International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST) (pp. 1–8). IEEE.

  36. 36.

    Lapide, L. (2004). RFID: What’s in it for the forecaster? The Journal of Business Forecasting, 23(2), 16.

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Jiang, W. (2015). A diagnostic tool for the causes of packet corruption in wireless sensor networks. Master’s thesis, Mid Sweden University, Department of Information and Communication systems.

  38. 38.

    YangDacheng, W. C. Z. (2010). Device-to-device communication as an underlay to lte-advanced networks. Modern Science & Technology of Telecommunications, 7, 005.

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Bravo, J., Hervas, R., Nava, S. W., Chavira, G., & Sanchez, C. (2007). Towards natural interaction by enabling technologies: A near field communication approach. In European Conference on Ambient Intelligence (pp. 338–351). Springer.

  40. 40.

    He, D., Kumar, N., & Lee, J.-H. (2015). Secure pseudonym-based near field communication protocol for the consumer Internet of things. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 61(1), 56–62.

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Wu, G., Talwar, S., Johnsson, K., Himayat, N., & Johnson, K. D. (2011). M2M: From mobile to embedded internet. IEEE Communications Magazine, 49(4), 36–43.

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Severi, S., Sottile, F., Abreu, G., Pastrone, C., Spirito, M., & Berens, F. (2014). M2M technologies: Enablers for a pervasive Internet of things. In 2014 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC) (pp. 1–5). IEEE.

  43. 43.

    Zorzi, M., Gluhak, A., Lange, S., & Bassi, A. (2010). From today’s intranet of things to a future internet of things: A wireless-and mobility-related view. IEEE Wireless Communications, 17(6), 44–51.

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Hank, P., Müller, S., Vermesan, O., & Van Den Keybus, J. (2013). Automotive ethernet: In-vehicle networking and smart mobility. In Proceedings of the Conference on Design, Automation and Test in Europe (pp. 1735–1739). EDA Consortium.

  45. 45.

    Kyriazis, D., Varvarigou, T., White, D., Rossi, A., & Cooper, J. (2013). Sustainable smart city IoT applications: Heat and electricity management & Eco-conscious cruise control for public transportation. In 2013 IEEE 14th International Symposium and Workshops on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM) (pp. 1–5). IEEE.

  46. 46.

    Somov, A., Dupont, C., & Giaffreda, R. (2013). Supporting smart-city mobility with cognitive Internet of Things. In Future Network and Mobile Summit (FutureNetworkSummit) (pp. 1–10). IEEE.

  47. 47.

    Vermesan, O., Blystad, L.-C., John, R., Hank, P., Bahr, R., & Moscatelli, A. (2013). Smart, connected and mobile: Architecting future electric mobility ecosystems. In Proceedings of the Conference on Design, Automation and Test in Europe (pp. 1740–1744). EDA Consortium.

  48. 48.

    He, W., Yan, G., & Da Xu, L. (2014). Developing vehicular data cloud services in the IoT environment. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), 1587–1595.

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Jin, J., Gubbi, J., Marusic, S., & Palaniswami, M. (2014). An information framework for creating a smart city through internet of things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(2), 112–121.

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Lee, S., Tewolde, G., & Kwon, J. (2014). Design and implementation of vehicle tracking system using GPS, GSM, GPRS technology and smartphone application. In IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), 2014 (pp. 353–358). IEEE.

  51. 51.

    Ma, X., Yu, H., Wang, Y., & Wang, Y. (2015). Large-scale transportation network congestion evolution prediction using deep learning theory. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0119044.

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Poslad, S., Ma, A., Wang, Z., & Mei, H. (2015). Using a smart city IoT to incentivise and target shifts in mobility behaviour—Is it a piece of pie? Sensors, 15(6), 13069–13096.

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Karnouskos, S., & De Holanda, T. N. (2009). Simulation of a smart grid city with software agents. In Third UKSim European Symposium on Computer Modeling and Simulation, 2009. EMS’09 (pp. 424–429). IEEE.

  54. 54.

    Bressan, N., Bazzaco, L., Bui, N., Casari, P., Vangelista, L., & Zorzi, M. (2010). The deployment of a smart monitoring system using wireless sensor and actuator networks. In 2010 First IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm) (pp. 49–54). IEEE.

  55. 55.

    Farhangi, H. (2010). The path of the smart grid. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 8(1), 18–28.

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Karnouskos, S. (2010). The cooperative internet of things enabled smart grid. In Proceedings of the 14th IEEE international symposium on consumer electronics (ISCE2010), June 2010, pp. 7–10.

  57. 57.

    Mohsenian-Rad, A.-H., Wong, V. W., Jatskevich, J., Schober, R., & Leon-Garcia, A. (2010). Autonomous demand-side management based on game-theoretic energy consumption scheduling for the future smart grid. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 1(3), 320–331.

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Yu, X., Cecati, C., Dillon, T., & Simoes, M. G. (2011). The new frontier of smart grids. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 5(3), 49–63.

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Bui, N., Castellani, A. P., Casari, P., & Zorzi, M. (2012). The internet of energy: A web-enabled smart grid system. IEEE Network, 26(4), 39–45.

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Li, L., Xiaoguang, H., Ke, C., & Ketai, H. (2011). The applications of WiFi-based wireless sensor network in internet of things and smart grid. In 2011 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA) (pp. 789–793). IEEE.

  61. 61.

    Yun, M., & Yuxin, B. (2010). Research on the architecture and key technology of Internet of Things (IoT) applied on smart grid. In 2010 International Conference on Advances in Energy Engineering (ICAEE) (pp. 69–72). IEEE.

  62. 62.

    Qin, Z., Denker, G., Giannelli, C., Bellavista, P., & Venkatasubramanian, N. (2014). A software defined networking architecture for the internet-of-things. In 2014 IEEE Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS) (pp. 1–9). IEEE.

  63. 63.

    Zhang, Y., Yu, R., Nekovee, M., Liu, Y., Xie, S., & Gjessing, S. (2012). Cognitive machine-to-machine communications: Visions and potentials for the smart grid. IEEE Network, 26(3), 6–13.

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Darianian, M., & Michael, M. P. (2008). Smart home mobile RFID-based Internet-of-Things systems and services. In International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering, 2008. ICACTE’08 (pp. 116–120). IEEE.

  65. 65.

    Chong, G., Zhihao, L., & Yifeng, Y. (2011). The research and implement of smart home system based on internet of things. In 2011 International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Control (ICECC) (pp. 2944–2947). IEEE.

  66. 66.

    Li, X., Lu, R., Liang, X., Shen, X., Chen, J., & Lin, X. (2011). Smart community: An internet of things application. IEEE Communications Magazine, 49(11), 68–75.

    Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Jie, Y., Pei, J. Y., Jun, L., Yun, G., & Wei, X. (2013). Smart home system based on IoT technologies. In 2013 Fifth International Conference on Computational and Information Sciences (ICCIS) (pp. 1789–1791). IEEE.

  68. 68.

    Piyare, R. (2013). Internet of things: Ubiquitous home control and monitoring system using android based smart phone. International Journal of Internet of Things, 2(1), 5–11.

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Soliman, M., Abiodun, T., Hamouda, T., Zhou, J., & Lung, C.-H. (2013). Smart home: Integrating internet of things with web services and cloud computing. In 2013 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom) (Vol. 2, pp. 317–320). IEEE.

  70. 70.

    Wang, M., Zhang, G., Zhang, C., Zhang, J., & Li, C. (2013). An IoT-based appliance control system for smart homes. In 2013 fourth International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP) (pp. 744–747). IEEE.

  71. 71.

    Kumar, S. (2014). Ubiquitous smart home system using android application. arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.2114.

  72. 72.

    Ghayvat, H., Mukhopadhyay, S., Gui, X., & Suryadevara, N. (2015). WSN-and IOT-based smart homes and their extension to smart buildings. Sensors, 15(5), 10 350–10 379.

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Rathore, M. M., Ahmad, A., Paul, A., & Rho, S. (2016). Urban planning and building smart cities based on the internet of things using big data analytics. Computer Networks, 101, 63–80.

    Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Castellani, A. P., Gheda, M., Bui, N., Rossi, M., & Zorzi, M. (2011). Web Services for the Internet of Things through CoAP and EXI. In 2011 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC) (pp. 1–6). IEEE.

  75. 75.

    Oliveira, L. M., & Rodrigues, J. J. (2011). Wireless sensor networks: A survey on environmental monitoring. JCM, 6(2), 143–151.

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Cheng, H.-C., & Liao, W.-W. (2012). Establishing an lifelong learning environment using IOT and learning analytics. In 2012 14th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT) (pp. 1178–1183). IEEE.

  77. 77.

    Jia, X., Feng, Q., Fan, T., & Lei, Q. (2012). RFID technology and its applications in Internet of Things (IoT). In 2012 2nd International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet) (pp. 1282–1285). IEEE.

  78. 78.

    Swan, M. (2012). Sensor mania! The internet of things, wearable computing, objective metrics, and the quantified self 2.0. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 1(3), 217–253.

    Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Kelly, S. D. T., Suryadevara, N. K., & Mukhopadhyay, S. C. (2013). Towards the implementation of IoT for environmental condition monitoring in homes. IEEE Sensors Journal, 13(10), 3846–3853.

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Lazarescu, M. T. (2013). Design of a WSN platform for long-term environmental monitoring for IoT applications. IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, 3(1), 45–54.

    Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Zhao, J., Zheng, X., Dong, R., & Shao, G. (2013). The planning, construction, and management toward sustainable cities in China needs the Environmental Internet of Things. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 20(3), 195–198.

    Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Fang, S., Da Xu, L., Zhu, Y., Ahati, J., Pei, H., Yan, J., et al. (2014). An integrated system for regional environmental monitoring and management based on internet of things. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), 1596–1605.

    Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Kantarci, B., & Mouftah, H. T. (2014). Trustworthy sensing for public safety in cloud-centric internet of things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(4), 360–368.

    Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Bui, N., & Zorzi, M. (2011). Health care applications: a solution based on the internet of things. In Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on applied sciences in biomedical and communication technologies (p. 131). ACM.

  85. 85.

    Istepanian, R. S., Hu, S., Philip, N. Y., & Sungoor, A. (2011). The potential of Internet of m-health Things “m-IoT” for non-invasive glucose level sensing. In Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC, 2011, Annual International Conference of the IEEE (pp. 5264–5266). IEEE.

  86. 86.

    Doukas, C., & Maglogiannis, I. (2012). Bringing IoT and cloud computing towards pervasive healthcare. In 2012 sixth international conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS) (pp. 922–926). IEEE.

  87. 87.

    Sung, W.-T., & Chiang, Y.-C. (2012). Improved particle swarm optimization algorithm for android medical care IOT using modified parameters. Journal of Medical Systems, 36(6), 3755–3763.

    Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Amendola, S., Lodato, R., Manzari, S., Occhiuzzi, C., & Marrocco, G. (2014). RFID technology for IoT-based personal healthcare in smart spaces. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(2), 144–152.

    Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Fan, Y. J., Yin, Y. H., Da Xu, L., Zeng, Y., & Wu, F. (2014). IoT-based smart rehabilitation system. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), 1568–1577.

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Xu, B., Da Xu, L., Cai, H., Xie, C., Hu, J., & Bu, F. (2014). Ubiquitous data accessing method in IoT-based information system for emergency medical services. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), 1578–1586.

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Yang, G., Xie, L., Mäntysalo, M., Zhou, X., Pang, Z., Da Xu, L., et al. (2014). A health-IoT platform based on the integration of intelligent packaging, unobtrusive bio-sensor, and intelligent medicine box. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(4), 2180–2191.

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Hassanalieragh, M., Page, A., Soyata, T., Sharma, G., Aktas, M., Mateos, G., et al. (2015). Health monitoring and management using Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensing with cloud-based processing: Opportunities and challenges. In 2015 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC) (pp. 285–292). IEEE.

  93. 93.

    Ukil, A., Bandyoapdhyay, S., Puri, C., & Pal, A. (2016). IoT healthcare analytics: The importance of anomaly detection. In 2016 IEEE 30th international conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA) (pp. 994–997). IEEE.

  94. 94.

    Kovatsch, M., Mayer, S., & Ostermaier, B. (2012). Moving application logic from the firmware to the cloud: Towards the thin server architecture for the internet of things. In 2012 sixth international conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS) (pp. 751–756). IEEE.

  95. 95.

    Durkop, L., Trsek, H., Jasperneite, J., & Wisniewski, L. (2012). Towards autoconfiguration of industrial automation systems: A case study using Profinet IO. In 2012 IEEE 17th conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA) (pp. 1–8). IEEE.

  96. 96.

    Palattella, M. R., Accettura, N., Grieco, L. A., Boggia, G., Dohler, M., & Engel, T. (2013). On optimal scheduling in duty-cycled industrial IoT applications using IEEE802. 15.4 e TSCH. IEEE Sensors Journal, 13(10), 3655–3666.

    Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Bi, Z., Da Xu, L., & Wang, C. (2014). Internet of things for enterprise systems of modern manufacturing. IEEE Transactions on industrial informatics, 10(2), 1537–1546.

    Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Chi, Q., Yan, H., Zhang, C., Pang, Z., & Da Xu, L. (2014). A reconfigurable smart sensor interface for industrial WSN in IoT environment. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), 1417–1425.

    Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    He, W., & Da Xu, L. (2014). Integration of distributed enterprise applications: A survey. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(1), 35–42.

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Perera, C., Liu, C. H., Jayawardena, S., & Chen, M. (2014). A survey on internet of things from industrial market perspective. IEEE Access, 2, 1660–1679.

    Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Yan, H., Zhang, Y., Pang, Z., & Da Xu, L. (2014). Superframe planning and access latency of slotted MAC for industrial WSN in IoT environment. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), 1242–1251.

    Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Qiu, X., Luo, H., Xu, G., Zhong, R., & Huang, G. Q. (2015). Physical assets and service sharing for IoT-enabled Supply Hub in Industrial Park (SHIP). International Journal of Production Economics, 159, 4–15.

    Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Reaidy, P. J., Gunasekaran, A., & Spalanzani, A. (2015). Bottom-up approach based on internet of things for order fulfillment in a collaborative warehousing environment. International Journal of Production Economics, 159, 29–40.

    Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Zhao, J., Zhang, J., Feng, Y., & Guo, J. (2010). The study and application of the IOT technology in agriculture. In 2010 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT) (Vol. 2, pp. 462–465). IEEE.

  105. 105.

    Liqiang, Z., Shouyi, Y., Leibo, L., Zhen, Z., & Shaojun, W. (2011). A crop monitoring system based on wireless sensor network. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 11, 558–565.

    Google Scholar 

  106. 106.

    Yan-e, D. (2011). Design of intelligent agriculture management information system based on IoT. In 2011 International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA) (Vol. 1, pp. 1045–1049). IEEE.

  107. 107.

    Bo, Y., & Wang, H. (2011). The application of cloud computing and the internet of things in agriculture and forestry. In 2011 International Joint Conference on Service Sciences (IJCSS) (pp. 168–172). IEEE.

  108. 108.

    Bandyopadhyay, D., & Sen, J. (2011). Internet of things: Applications and challenges in technology and standardization. Wireless Personal Communications, 58(1), 49–69.

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    Chen, Y., Chanet, J.-P., & Hou, K. M. (2012). RPL Routing Protocol a case study: Precision agriculture. In First China-France Workshop on Future Computing Technology (CF-WoFUCT 2012), p. 6-p.

  110. 110.

    Li, S. (2012). Application of the internet of things technology in precision agriculture irrigation systems. In 2012 international conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS) (pp. 1009–1013). IEEE.

  111. 111.

    Kaloxylos, A., Eigenmann, R., Teye, F., Politopoulou, Z., Wolfert, S., Shrank, C., et al. (2012). Farm management systems and the Future Internet era. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 89, 130–144.

    Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    TongKe, F. (2013). Smart agriculture based on cloud computing and IOT. Journal of Convergence Information Technology, 8(2).

  113. 113.

    Ojha, T., Misra, S., & Raghuwanshi, N. S. (2015). Wireless sensor networks for agriculture: The state-of-the-art in practice and future challenges. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 118, 66–84.

    Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Lopez-de Ipiña, D., Díaz-de Sarralde, I., & Zubía, J. G. (2010). An ambient assisted living platform integrating RFID data-on-tag care annotations and Twitter. Journal of UCS, 16(12), 1521–1538.

    Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Zhang, X. M., & Zhang, N. (2011). An open, secure and flexible platform based on internet of things and cloud computing for ambient aiding living and telemedicine. In 2011 International Conference on Computer and Management (CAMAN) (pp. 1–4). IEEE.

  116. 116.

    Domingo, M. C. (2012). An overview of the Internet of Things for people with disabilities. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 35(2), 584–596.

    Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Jara, A. J., Zamora, M. A., & Skarmeta, A. F. (2011). An internet of things-based personal device for diabetes therapy management in ambient assisted living (AAL). Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 15(4), 431–440.

    Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Memon, M., Wagner, S. R., Pedersen, C. F., Beevi, F. H. A., & Hansen, F. O. (2014). Ambient assisted living healthcare frameworks, platforms, standards, and quality attributes. Sensors, 14(3), 4312–4341.

    Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Kumar, A., Mihovska, A., Kyriazakos, S., & Prasad, R. (2014). Visible light communications (VLC) for ambient assisted living. Wireless Personal Communications, 78(3), 1699–1717.

    Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Konstantinidis, E. I., Antoniou, P. E., Bamparopoulos, G., & Bamidis, P. D. (2015). A lightweight framework for transparent cross platform communication of controller data in ambient assisted living environments. Information Sciences, 300, 124–139.

    Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Cubo, J., Nieto, A., & Pimentel, E. (2014). A cloud-based Internet of Things platform for ambient assisted living. Sensors, 14(8), 14070–14105.

    Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Parada, R., Melia-Segui, J., Morenza-Cinos, M., Carreras, A., & Pous, R. (2015). Using RFID to detect interactions in ambient assisted living environments. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 30(4), 16–22.

    Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Li, R., Lu, B., & McDonald-Maier, K. D. (2015). Cognitive assisted living ambient system: A survey. Digital Communications and Networks, 1(4), 229–252.

    Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Artmann, R. (1999). Electronic identification systems: State of the art and their further development. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 24(1), 5–26.

    Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Wismans, W. (1999). Identification and registration of animals in the European Union. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 24(1), 99–108.

    Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Streit, S., Bock, F., Pirk, C. W., & Tautz, J. (2003). Automatic life-long monitoring of individual insect behaviour now possible. Zoology, 106(3), 169–171.

    Google Scholar 

  127. 127.

    Stoces, M., Vanek, J., Masner, J., & Pavlík, J. (2016). Internet of Things (IoT) in agriculture-selected aspects. AGRIS On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 8(1), 83.

    Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Khanna, A., & Kaur, S. (2019). Evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) and its significant impact in the field of precision agriculture. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 157, 218–231.

    Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Wyld, D. C., Jones, M. A., & Totten, J. W. (2005). Where is my suitcase? RFID and airline customer service. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(4), 382–394.

    Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L., & Zorzi, M. (2014). Internet of things for smart cities. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(1), 22–32.

    Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Beyer, S. M., Mullins, B. E., Graham, S. R., & Bindewald, J. M. (2018). Pattern-of-life modeling in smart homes. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 56, 5317–5325.

    Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Sommerville, J., & Craig, N. (2005). Intelligent buildings with radio frequency identification devices. Structural Survey, 23(4), 282–290.

    Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Jaselskis, E. J., & El-Misalami, T. (2003). Implementing radio frequency identification in the construction process. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 129(6), 680–688.

    Google Scholar 

  134. 134.

    Shrouf, F., Ordieres, J., & Miragliotta, G. (2014). Smart factories in Industry 4.0: A review of the concept and of energy management approached in production based on the Internet of Things paradigm. In 2014 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM) (pp. 697–701). IEEE.

  135. 135.

    Li, Y. (2013). Design of a key establishment protocol for smart home energy management system. In 2013 fifth international Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks (CICSyN) (pp. 88–93). IEEE.

  136. 136.

    Lai, C.-F., Lai, Y.-X., Yang, L. T., & Chao, H.-C. (2012). Integration of IoT energy management system with appliance and activity recognition. In 2012 IEEE international conference on Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) (pp. 66–71). IEEE.

  137. 137.

    Zheng, L., Chen, S., Xiang, S., & Hu, Y. (2012). Research of architecture and application of Internet of Things for smart grid. In 2012 International Conference on Computer Science & Service System (CSSS) (pp. 938–941). IEEE.

  138. 138.

    Bekara, C. (2014). Security issues and challenges for the IoT-based smart grid. Procedia Computer Science, 34, 532–537.

    Google Scholar 

  139. 139.

    Hall, R., & Hampl, J. S. (2004). Radio frequency identification: Applications for dietetics professionals. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104(10), 1521–1522.

    Google Scholar 

  140. 140.

    Jones, P., Clarke-Hill, C., Comfort, D., Hillier, D., & Shears, P. (2005). Radio frequency identification and food retailing in the UK. British Food Journal, 107(6), 356–360.

    Google Scholar 

  141. 141.

    Venkatesan, M., & Grauer, Z. (2004). Leveraging radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve laboratory information management. American Laboratory, 36(18), 11–14.

    Google Scholar 

  142. 142.

    Yao, W., Chu, C.-H., & Li, Z. (2011). Leveraging complex event processing for smart hospitals using RFID. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 34(3), 799–810.

    Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    Coronato, A., Esposito, M., & De Pietro, G. (2009). A multimodal semantic location service for intelligent environments: An application for Smart Hospitals. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 13(7), 527–538.

    Google Scholar 

  144. 144.

    Catarinucci, L., De Donno, D., Mainetti, L., Palano, L., Patrono, L., Stefanizzi, M. L., et al. (2015). An IoT-aware architecture for smart healthcare systems. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 2(6), 515–526.

    Google Scholar 

  145. 145.

    Yu, L., Lu, Y., & Zhu, X. (2012). Smart Hospital based on Internet of Things. JNW, 7(10), 1654–1661.

    Google Scholar 

  146. 146.

    Hautala, M., Keränen, N. S., Leinonen, E., Kangas, M., & Jämsä, T. (2017). ICT use in family caregiving of elderly and disabled subjects. In eHealth\(360^{\circ }\) (pp. 42–48). Springer.

  147. 147.

    Kumar, D., Ravindra, S., et al. (2016). E-Assistance for elderly and disabled. Journal of Embedded Systems and Processing, 1(2), 1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  148. 148.

    Chaudhari, N., Gupta, A., & Raju, S. (2016). ALED system to provide mobile IoT assistance for elderly and disabled. International Journal of Smart Home, 10(8), 35–50.

    Google Scholar 

  149. 149.

    Agrawal, S., & Lal Das, M. (2011). Internet of things—A paradigm shift of future internet applications, pp. 1–7, 12.

  150. 150.

    Hussain, A., Wenbi, R., da Silva, A. L., Nadher, M., & Mudhish, M. (2015). Health and emergency-care platform for the elderly and disabled people in the Smart City. Journal of Systems and Software, 110, 253–263.

    Google Scholar 

  151. 151.

    Qushem, U. B., Dahlan, A. R. B. A., & Ghani, A. S. B. M. (2016). My emergency assistant device: A conceptual solution in enhancing the quality of life for the disabled and elderly. In 2016 6th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for The Muslim World (ICT4M) (pp. 82–87). IEEE.

  152. 152.

    Hicks, P. (1999). RFID and the book trade. Publishing Research Quarterly, 15(2), 21–23.

    Google Scholar 

  153. 153.

    Keskilammi, M., & Kivikoski, M. (2004). Using text as a meander line for RFID transponder antennas. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 3(1), 372–374.

    Google Scholar 

  154. 154.

    Coyle, K. (2005). Management of RFID in Libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 31(5), 486–489.

    Google Scholar 

  155. 155.

    Lee Eden, B., Fabbi, J. L., Watson, S. D., Marks, K. E., & Sylvis, Z. (2005). UNLV libraries and the digital identification frontier. Library Hi Tech, 23(3), 313–322.

    Google Scholar 

  156. 156.

    Jansen, R., & Krabs, A. (1999). Automatic identification in packaging—Radio frequency identification in multiway systems. Packaging Technology and Science, 12(5), 229–234.

    Google Scholar 

  157. 157.

    Angeles, R. (2005). RFID technologies: Supply-chain applications and implementation issues. Information Systems Management, 22(1), 51–65.

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  158. 158.

    Twist, D. C. (2005). The impact of radio frequency identification on supply chain facilities. Journal of Facilities Management, 3(3), 226–239.

    Google Scholar 

  159. 159.

    Kärkkäinen, M. (2003). Increasing efficiency in the supply chain for short shelf life goods using RFID tagging. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 31(10), 529–536.

    Google Scholar 

  160. 160.

    Jones, P., Clarke-Hill, C., Comfort, D., Hillier, D., & Shears, P. (2004). Radio frequency identification in retailing and privacy and public policy issues. Management Research News, 27(8/9), 46–56.

    Google Scholar 

  161. 161.

    Eckfeldt, B. (2005). What does RFID do for the consumer? Communications of the ACM, 48(9), 77–79.

    Google Scholar 

  162. 162.

    Jones, P., Clarke-Hill, C., Hillier, D., & Comfort, D. (2005). The benefits, challenges and impacts of radio frequency identification technology (RFID) for retailers in the UK. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(4), 395–402.

    Google Scholar 

  163. 163.

    Soliman, K. S., Janz, B. D., Prater, E., Frazier, G. V., & Reyes, P. M. (2005). Future impacts of rfid on e-supply chains in grocery retailing. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 10(2), 134–142.

    Google Scholar 

  164. 164.

    Wäger, P., Eugster, M., Hilty, L., & Som, C. (2005). Smart labels in municipal solid waste-a case for the Precautionary Principle? Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 25(5), 567–586.

    Google Scholar 

  165. 165.

    Moreno, M. V., Santa, J., Zamora, M. A., & Skarmeta, A. F. (2014). A holistic IoT-based management platform for smart environments. In 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) (pp. 3823–3828). IEEE.

  166. 166.

    Yu, M., Zhang, D., Cheng, Y., & Wang, M. (2011). An RFID electronic tag based automatic vehicle identification system for traffic IOT applications. In 2011 Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC) (pp. 4192–4197). IEEE.

  167. 167.

    Misbahuddin, S., Zubairi, J. A., Saggaf, A., Basuni, J., Sulaiman, A., Al-Sofi, A., et al. (2015). IoT based dynamic road traffic management for smart cities. In 2015 12th international conference on High-Capacity Optical Networks and Enabling/Emerging Technologies (HONET) (pp. 1–5). IEEE.

  168. 168.

    Foschini, L., Taleb, T., Corradi, A., & Bottazzi, D. (2011). M2M-based metropolitan platform for IMS-enabled road traffic management in IoT. IEEE Communications Magazine, 49(11), 50–57.

    Google Scholar 

  169. 169.

    Zhou, L., & Chao, H.-C. (2011). Multimedia traffic security architecture for the internet of things. IEEE Network, 25(3), 35–40.

    Google Scholar 

  170. 170.

    Djahel, S., Doolan, R., Muntean, G.-M., & Murphy, J. (2015). A communications-oriented perspective on traffic management systems for smart cities: Challenges and innovative approaches. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17(1), 125–151.

    Google Scholar 

  171. 171.

    Lee, W.-H., Tseng, S.-S., & Shieh, W.-Y. (2010). Collaborative real-time traffic information generation and sharing framework for the intelligent transportation system. Information Sciences, 180(1), 62–70.

    Google Scholar 

  172. 172.

    Figueiredo, L., Jesus, I., Machado, J. T., Ferreira, J. R., & De Carvalho, J. M. (2001). Towards the development of intelligent transportation systems. In Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2001. Proceedings. 2001 IEEE (pp. 1206–1211). IEEE.

  173. 173.

    Nastic, S., Sehic, S., Le, D.-H., Truong, H.-L., & Dustdar, S. (2014). Provisioning software-defined IoT cloud systems. In 2014 international conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud) (pp. 288–295). IEEE.

  174. 174.

    Yilmaz, T., Gokkoca, G., & Akan, O. B. (2016). Millimetre wave communication for 5G IoT applications. In Internet of Things (IoT) in 5G Mobile Technologies (pp. 37–53). Springer.

  175. 175.

    Wu, M., Lu, T.-J., Ling, F.-Y., Sun, J., & Du, H.-Y. (2010). Research on the architecture of Internet of things. In 2010 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (ICACTE) (Vol. 5, pp. V5–484). IEEE.

  176. 176.

    Khan, R., Khan, S. U., Zaheer, R., & Khan, S. (2012). Future internet: The internet of things architecture, possible applications and key challenges. In 2012 10th international conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT) (pp. 257–260). IEEE.

  177. 177.

    Gan, G., Lu, Z., & Jiang, J. (2011). Internet of things security analysis. In 2011 international conference on Internet Technology and Applications (iTAP) (pp. 1–4). IEEE.

  178. 178.

    Yang, Y., Wu, L., Yin, G., Li, L., & Zhao, H. (2017). A survey on security and privacy issues in internet-of-things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 4(5), 1250–1258.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to acknowledge Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for funding grants vide No. 38(1464)/18/EMIR-II for carrying out research work.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Abhishek Khanna.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Khanna, A., Kaur, S. Internet of Things (IoT), Applications and Challenges: A Comprehensive Review. Wireless Pers Commun 114, 1687–1762 (2020).

Download citation


  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Wireless sensor networks (WSN)
  • Radio-frequency identification (RFID)
  • Near-field communication (NFC)
  • Internet of Energy (IoE)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Representational State Transfer (REST)
  • Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
  • Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)