An QoS Aware Link Defined OLSR (LD-OLSR) Routing Protocol for MANETS


Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETS) are gaining popularity because of interconnected networks. Routing is a key issue which needs to be addressed for efficient forwarding of packets from source to destination. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is a proactive or table driven routing protocol in MANETS which works on the principal of link sensing. Multi Point Relay (MPR) node is mainly responsible for forwarding of topology control messages in OLSR. In this work MPR node is selected on the basis of node’s willingness to be selected as MPR. Wireless links are generally much inferior and prone to link losses. Frequent link failures result in lesser QoS parameters such as lesser throughput, higher end to end delay, higher latency and less utilization of link bandwidth. Link quality is an important metric to be taken as a research topic while deciding routing protocol. Routing protocols suggested by many authors have proffered minimum hop routing which contains lossy links in wireless medium resulting in reduction of throughput. In this work, Link Defined OLSR (OLSR-LD) is proposed which considers quality of link while making routing decision. Extensive Simulations were performed using NS-2 Simulator by varying pause time of nodes, simulation time of nodes and speed of nodes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. 1.

    Adam, S. M., & Hassan, R. (2013). Delay aware reactive routing protocols for QoS in MANETs: A review. Journal of applied research and technology, 11(6), 844–850.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Boushaba, A., Benabbou, A., Benabbou, R., Zahi, A., & Oumsis, M. (2015). Multi-point relay selection strategies to reduce topology control traffic for OLSR protocol in MANETs. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 53, 91–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Chlamtac, I., Conti, M., & Liu, J. J. N. (2003). Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges. Ad Hoc Networks, 1(1), 13–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    De Couto, D. S., Aguayo, D., Bicket, J., & Morris, R. (2005). A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. Wireless Networks, 11(4), 419–434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    De Rango, F., Fotino, M., & Marano, S. (2008). EE-OLSR: Energy efficient OLSR routing protocol for Mobile ad-hoc Networks. In Military communications conference, 2008. MILCOM 2008. IEEE (pp. 1–7). IEEE.

  6. 6.

    De Rango, F., Guerriero, F., & Fazio, P. (2012). Link-stability and energy aware routing protocol in distributed wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 23(4), 713–726.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Dhanalakshmi, N., & Alli, P. (2016). Efficient energy conservation in MANET using energy conserving advanced optimised link state routing model. International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems, 31(5), 469–480.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Guo, Z., Malakooti, S., Sheikh, S., Al-Najjar, C., Lehman, M., & Malakooti, B. (2011). Energy aware proactive optimized link state routing in mobile ad-hoc networks. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 35(10), 4715–4729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Hasdemir, S., Yilmaz, S. & Sen, S. (2019). Applied Intelligence.

  10. 10.

    Jabbar, W. A., Ismail, M., & Nordin, R. (2014). Performance evaluation of MBA-OLSR routing protocol for MANETs. Journal of computer networks and communications2014, 951638.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Jabbar, W. A., Ismail, M., Nordin, R., & Ramli, R. M. (2017). EMA-MPR: Energy and mobility-aware multi-point relay selection mechanism for multipath OLSRv2. In 2017 IEEE 13th Malaysia international conference on communications (MICC), (pp. 1–6). IEEE.

  12. 12.

    Maccari, L., Maischberger, M., & Cigno, R. L. (2018). Where have all the MPRs gone? On the optimal selection of multi-point relays. Ad Hoc Networks, 77, 69–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Moussaoui, A., Semchedine, F., & Boukerram, A. (2014). A link-state QoS routing protocol based on link stability for Mobile Ad hoc Networks. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 39, 117–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Natarajan, D., & Rajendran, A. P. (2014). AOLSR: hybrid ad hoc routing protocol based on a modified Dijkstra’s algorithm. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2014(1), 90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Sakthivel, M., & Palanisamy, V. G. (2015). Enhancement of accuracy metrics for energy levels in MANETs. Computers and Electrical Engineering, 48, 100–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Song, Q., Ning, Z., Wang, S., & Jamalipour, A. (2012). Link stability estimation based on link connectivity changes in mobile ad-hoc networks. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 35(6), 2051–2058.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rachna Jain.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jain, R., Kashyap, I. An QoS Aware Link Defined OLSR (LD-OLSR) Routing Protocol for MANETS. Wireless Pers Commun 108, 1745–1758 (2019).

Download citation


  • Optimized link state routing (OLSR)
  • Mobile Adhoc networks (MANETS)
  • Expected transmission count (ETX)
  • Multi point relay (MPR)
  • Quality of service (QoS)
  • Throughput
  • End to end delay
  • Energy cost per packet