Applicability of Wireless Sensor Networks in Precision Agriculture: A Review

Abstract

Presently, wireless sensor network (WSN) plays important role in engineering, science, agriculture and many other field like surveillance, military applications, smart cars etc. Precision agriculture (PA) is one of the field in which WSN is widely adopted. The aim of the adoption of WSNs in PA is to measure the different environmental parameters such as humidity, temperature, soil moisture, PH value of soil etc., for enhancing the quantity and quality of crops. Further, the WSNs are also helped to reduce the consumptions of the natural resources used in farming. Hence, the aim of this review is to identify the various WSNs technologies adopted for precision agriculture and impact of these technologies to achieve smart agriculture. This review also focuses on the different environmental parameters like irrigation, monitoring, soil properties, temperature for achieving precision agriculture. Further, a detailed study is also carried out on different crops which are covered using WSNs technologies. This review also highlights on the different communication technologies and sensors available for PA. To analyze the impact of the WSNs in agriculture field, several research questions are designed and through this review, we are tried to find the solutions of these research questions.

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Abbreviations

APTEEN:

Adaptive periodic threshold-sensitive energy efficient sensor network protocol

AMSR-E:

Advanced microwave scanning radiometer for the earth observing system

ASCAT:

Advanced scatterometer

BOP:

Beacon only period

CMOS:

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor

CSMA:

Carrier-sense multiple access

DCTA:

Dynamic converge cast tree algorithm

DEEC:

Distributed energy efficient clustering

DGNSS:

Differential global navigation satellite system

DSSS:

Direct-sequence spread spectrum

ECA:

Electrical conductivity

ECHERP:

Equalized cluster head election routing protocol

EEHC:

Energy efficient hierarchical clustering

EMI:

Electromagnetic induction

FHSS:

Frequency-hopping spread spectrum

GFSK:

Gaussian frequency shift keying

GIS:

Geographical information system

GPRS:

General packet radio service

GPS:

Global positioning system

IC:

Integrated circuit

IEEE:

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IOT:

Internet of thing

IRT:

Interactive response technology

LAA:

Last address assignment

LLC:

Logical link control layer

MAC:

Media access control address

MC:

Moisture content

MIR:

Mid-infrared

MLR:

Multiple regression analysis

NIR:

Near-infrared spectroscopy

NS2:

Network simulator 2

OASNDFA:

Optimized algorithm of sensor node deployment for intelligent agricultural monitoring

OC:

Organic carbon

OFDM:

Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing

OGC:

Open Geospatial Consortium

OS:

Operating system

PA:

Precision agriculture

PCR:

Principal component regression

pH:

Potential of hydrogen

PIR Sensor:

Passive infrared sensor

PLSR:

Partial least squares regression

PRI:

Polarization ratio index

PRR:

Packet reception ratio

RBHR:

Region-based hybrid routing protocol

RF:

Radio frequency

RIFD:

Radio frequency identification

RIMCS:

Remote irrigation monitoring and control system

RQ:

Research question

RSSI:

Received signal strength indicator)

SBC:

Single board computer

SCI:

Science citation index

SMSS:

Soil moisture sensor system

SNDCP:

Sub network dependent convergence protocol

SoC:

System on chip

SQL:

Structured Query Language

SWE:

Sensor Web Enablement

TC:

Canopy temperature

TDR:

Time-domain reflectometer

TDT:

Time domain transmissometry

TN:

Total nitrogen

UAV:

Unmanned-aircraft vehicle

URI:

Uniform Resource Identifier

USB:

Universal Serial Bus

vis–NIR:

Visible near infrared

VRI:

Variable rate irrigation

Wi-Fi:

Wireless fidelity

WiMAX:

Worldwide Interoperability for microwave access

WISC:

Wireless in-field sensing and control

WSAN:

Wireless sensor and actuator network

WSN:

Wireless sensor network

WUSNs:

Wireless underground sensor networks

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Thakur, D., Kumar, Y., Kumar, A. et al. Applicability of Wireless Sensor Networks in Precision Agriculture: A Review. Wireless Pers Commun 107, 471–512 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-019-06285-2

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Keywords

  • Wireless sensor network
  • Precision agriculture
  • Sensors
  • Monitoring
  • Irrigation