Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 101, Issue 2, pp 661–676 | Cite as

BHQRSM: Binary Hex Quadratic Residue Security Model to Enhance the Trust in MANETs

  • Syed Jalal Ahmad
  • P. Radha Krishna


Mobile adhoc network (MANET) possesses various security challenges mainly due to its varying network topology. As central coordination is not possible in MANETs, sharing of keys between nodes is a difficult task. In this paper, we present a Binary Hex Quadratic Residue Security Model that does not require any kind of key distribution between the nodes in MANETs. We use a stream of equal weighted hex codes of decimal numbers and Ex-OR operations to generate a security vector which facilitates matching of code words and also determine the active and malicious nodes in the network. Our approach also saves energy as it requires less computational analysis when compared to existing approaches. We validate our approach through simulations results.


Hex code Quadratic residue Trust Code vector Malicious node 



  1. 1.
    Jøsang, A., Ismail, R., & Boyd, C. (2007). A survey of trust and reputation systems for online service provision. Decision Support Systems, 43(2), 618–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hu, Y.-C., Perrig, A., & Johnson, D. B. (2002). Ariadne: A secure on demand routing protocol for ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of international conference on mobile computing and networking (pp. 12–23), Atlanta, USA.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Papadimitratos, P., & Haas, Z. J. (2002). Secure routing for mobile ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of SCS communication networks and distributed systems modeling and simulation conference, USA.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buttyan, L., & Hubaux, J. (2001). Nuglets: A virtual currency to stimulate cooperation in self-organized ad hoc networks. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne DSC/2001/001.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhong, S., Chen, J., & Yang, Y. R. (2003). Sprite: A simple, cheat-proof, credit-based system for mobile ad hoc networks. INFOCOM, 2003, 1987–1997.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu, Y., & Yang, Y. R. (2003). Reputation propagation and agreement in mobile ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of IEEE wireless communications and networking (WCNC 2003) (pp. 1510–1515), New Orleans, USA.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lindsay, S. Y., Wei, Y., Zhu, H., & Liu, K. J. R. (2006). Information theoretic framework of trust modeling and evaluation for ad hoc networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 24(2), 305–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhou, L., & Haas, Z. J. (1999). Securing ad hoc networks. IEEE Network, 13(6), 24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luo, H., Zerfos, P., Kong, J., Lu, S., & Zhang, L. (2002). Self-securing ad hoc wireless networks. In IEEE ISCC 2002.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chan, A. C-E. (2004). Distributed symmetric key management for mobile ad hoc networks. In INFOCOM 2004 (pp. 2414–2424), China.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balakrishnan, V., Varadharajan, V., Tupakula, U. K., & Lucs, P. (2007). Trust integrated cooperation architecture for mobile ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of 4th IEEE international symposium on wireless communication systems (ISWCS 2007), Trondheim, Norway.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aarti, D. S., & Tayagi, S. S. (2013). Study of MANET: Characteristics, challenges, application and security attacks. International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 3(5), 252–257.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ranjeetha, S., Renuga, N., & Sharmila, R. (2017). Secure zone routing protocol for MANET. In International conference on emerging trends in engineering, science and sustainable technology (ICETSST-2017) (pp. 67–76).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wadbude, D., & Richariya, V. (2012). An efficient secure AODV routing protocol in MANET. International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), 1(4), 274–279.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sun, B., & Yu, B. (2009). The three-layered group key management architecture for MANET. In Proceedings of 11th international conference on advanced communication technology (Vol. 2, pp. 1378–1381).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mamatha, G. S., & Sharma, S. C. (2010). A highly secured approach against attacks in MANETS. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, 2, 815–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elizabeth, N. E., Subsree, S., & Radha, S. (2014). Enhanced security key management scheme for MANETS. WSEAS Transactions on Communication, 13, 15–25.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Michiardi, P., & Molva, R. (2002). Core: A collaborative reputation mechanism to enforce node cooperation in mobile Adhoc networks. In Proceedings of 6th IFIP communications and multimedia security conference (pp. 107–121), Portorosz, Slovenia.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jay, S. E. I., & Hasbi, A. (2016). Security in MANETs and WSNs. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 16(9), 118–122.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rana, S., & Sing, M. (2011). Performance analysis of malicious node aware routing for MANET using two hop authentication. International Journal of Computer Applications, 25(3), 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hu, Y.-C., Perrig, A., & Johnson, D. B. (2005). Ariadne: A secure on-demand routing protocol for ad hoc networks. Wireless Networks, 11(1), 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chandrakant, N. (2013). Self-protecting nodes for secured data transmission in energy efficient MANETs. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 3(6), 673–675.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ahmed, A., Bakar, K. A., Channa, M. I., Haseeb, K., & Khan, A. W. (2016). A trust aware routing protocol for energy constraint wireless sensor networks. Telecommunication Systems, 61(1), 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kukreja, D., Dhurandher, S. K., & Reddy, B. V. R. (2017). Power aware malicious nodes detection for securing MANETs against packet forwarding misbehavior attack. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing. Scholar
  25. 25.
    Singh, M., & Sharma, A. (2015). Security issues in MANET. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 5(8), 471–473.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deng, H., Li, W., & Agrawal, D. P. (2002). Routing security in adhoc networks. IEEE Communication Magazine, 40(10), 70–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dorri, A., Kamel, S. R., & Kheyrkhah, E. (2014). An analysis of security challenges in mobile adhoc networks. Computer In Science and information technology (CS & IT) (pp. 13–25).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lo, N.-W., & Liu, F.-L. (2013). A secure routing protocol to prevent cooperative black hole attack in MANET. Intelligent Technologies and Engineering Systems, 234, 59–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gorlatova, M. A., Mason, P. C., Wang, M., & Lamont, L. (2006). Detecting wormhole attacks in mobile ad hoc networks through protocol breaking and packet timing analysis. In Military communications conference (MILCOM), IEEE, 2006.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Keer, S., & Suryavanshi, A. (2010). To prevent wormhole attacks using wireless protocol in MANET. In International conference on computer and communication technology, ICCCT-2010.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Khan, Z. A., & Islam, M. H. (2012). Wormhole attack: A new detection technique. In International conference on emerging technologies, ICET-2012.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yu, M., Zhou, M. C., & Su, W. (2009). A secure routing protocol against byzantine attacks for MANETs in adversarial environments. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58(1), 449–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Singla, G., & Kaliyar, P. (2013). A secure routing protocol for MANETs against byzantine attacks. Computer Networks and Communications (NetCom), Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 131, 571–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shaw, S., Orea, K., Venkateswaran, P., & Nandi, R. (2011). Simulation and performance analysis of OLSR under identity spoofing attack for mobile ad-hoc networks. Computer Networks and Information Technologies Communications in Computer and Information Science, 142, 308–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kannhavong, B., Nakayama, H., Nemoto, Y., & Kato, N. (2007). A survey of routing attacks in mobile adhoc networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 14(5), 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rai, A. K., Tewari, R. R., & Upadhyay, S. K. (2010). Different type of attacks on integrated MANET: Internet communication. International journal of computer science and security (IJCSS), 4(3), 265–274.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Supriya, K. M., & Khari, M. (2012). Mobile ad hoc networks security attacks and secured routing protocols: A survey. Advances in Computer Science and Information Technology. Networks and Communications, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, 84, 119–124.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamieh, A., & Ben-Othman, J. (2009). Detection of Jamming attacks in wireless ad hoc networks using error distribution. In International conference on communications, ICC ‘09.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Glynos, D., Kotzanikolaou, P., & Douligeris, C. (2005). Preventing impersonation attacks in MANET with multi-factor authentication. In Third international symposium on modeling and optimization in mobile, ad hoc, and wireless networks, WIOPT.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vaithiyanathan Gracelin, S. R., Edna, E. N., & Radha, S. (2010). A novel method for detection and elimination of modification attack and TTL attack in NTP based routing algorithm. In International conference on recent trends in information, telecommunication and computing, ITC-2010.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yi, P., Jiang, X., & Wu, Y. (2008). Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks. Journal on Systems Engineering and Electronics, 19(4), 851–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Liu, J., Fu, F., Xiao, J., & Lu, Y. (2007). Secure routing for mobile ad hoc networks. In 8th ACIS international conference on software engineering, artificial intelligence, networking, and parallel/distributed computing, SNPD -2007.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
    Ahmad, S. J., Damodaram, A., Reddy, V. S. K., & Krishna, P. R. (2013). Location aware and energy efficient routing protocol for long distance MANETs. International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, 13(4), 327–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Guru Nanak Institutions Technical CampusHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Infosys LimitedHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations