Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 375–390 | Cite as

Design of a Low-Cost Modem for Short-Range Underwater Acoustic Communications

  • Muhammad Yousuf Irfan Zia
  • Pablo Otero
  • Javier Poncela


An underwater acoustic modem (UAM) is an essential component of an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN). The applications of UWSNs include, but are not limited to, monitoring of aquatic environments and coral reefs, coastal surveillance, etc. The design of UAMs is a challenging research problem due to the varying water environment. Moreover, the cost of UAM is an impediment to use it in a large UWSN. Hence, an economical UAM is required to encourage research in this area. In this paper, a low-cost modem prototype for short-range underwater acoustic communications is presented. As compared to the available solutions, cost-effectiveness is novelty of the modem. Furthermore, design parameters are available that could be modified or replicated for further research. Each module is tested individually and the overall performance of the modem is evaluated by experiments in an aquatic environment. The outcomes of the research are useful for the scientific community and provide guidelines to design a low-cost underwater acoustic modem.


Acoustic modem Ultrasonic underwater transducers Underwater communications Underwater wireless sensor networks 



The authors are thankful to the resources provided by the University of Malaga.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Yousuf Irfan Zia
    • 1
  • Pablo Otero
    • 1
  • Javier Poncela
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Communications EngineeringUniversity of MalagaMalagaSpain

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