Design of a Low-Cost Modem for Short-Range Underwater Acoustic Communications
- 25 Downloads
An underwater acoustic modem (UAM) is an essential component of an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN). The applications of UWSNs include, but are not limited to, monitoring of aquatic environments and coral reefs, coastal surveillance, etc. The design of UAMs is a challenging research problem due to the varying water environment. Moreover, the cost of UAM is an impediment to use it in a large UWSN. Hence, an economical UAM is required to encourage research in this area. In this paper, a low-cost modem prototype for short-range underwater acoustic communications is presented. As compared to the available solutions, cost-effectiveness is novelty of the modem. Furthermore, design parameters are available that could be modified or replicated for further research. Each module is tested individually and the overall performance of the modem is evaluated by experiments in an aquatic environment. The outcomes of the research are useful for the scientific community and provide guidelines to design a low-cost underwater acoustic modem.
KeywordsAcoustic modem Ultrasonic underwater transducers Underwater communications Underwater wireless sensor networks
The authors are thankful to the resources provided by the University of Malaga.
- 2.Manjula, R., & Manvi, S. S. (2011). Issues in underwater acoustic sensor networks. International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, 3(1), 101–110.Google Scholar
- 6.Evologics: Underwater Acoustic Modems. https://www.evologics.de/en/products/acoustics/index.html. Accessed January, 2018.
- 7.LinkQuest: SoundLink Underwater Acoustic Modems. http://www.link-quest.com/html/uwm_hr.pdf. Accessed January, 2018.
- 8.Teledyne Benthos: Underwater Acoustic Modems. http://teledynebenthos.com/product_dashboard/acoustic_modems. Accessed January, 2018.
- 9.Oceania: GPM 300 Underwater Acoustic Modem. http://www2.l-3com.com/oceania/products/uc_modem.htm. Accessed January, 2018.
- 10.AquaSeNT: Underwater Acoustic Modems. http://www.aquasent.com/acoustic-modems/. Accessed January, 2018.
- 12.Raspberry Pi. https://www.raspberrypi.org/. Accessed January, 2018.
- 13.Microcontroller Atmega328P. http://www.microchip.com/wwwproducts/en/ATmega328P. Accessed January, 2018.
- 15.Wu, L., Cui, X., & Yu, D. (2012). Design and implementation of a BPSK acoustic modem for underwater communication. In IET International Conference on Information Science and Control Engineering 2012 (ICISCE 2012) (pp. 1–4): IET.Google Scholar
- 16.Chitre, M., Topor, I., & Koay, T.-B. (2012). The UNET-2 modem—An extensible tool for underwater networking research. In OCEANS, 2012-Yeosu (pp. 1–7): IEEE.Google Scholar
- 18.Introduction to orthogonal frequency division_multiplexing. http://www.csd.uoc.gr/~hy439/reading/list_2010/introduction_orthogonal_frequency_division_multiplex.pdf. Accessed January, 2018.
- 19.Jeon, J. H., An, H., & Park, S. J. (2016). Design and implementation of bidirectional OFDM modem prototype for high-speed underwater acoustic communication systems. In OCEANS 2016 Shanghai, 10–13 April 2016 (pp. 1–4). https://doi.org/10.1109/oceansap.2016.7485578.
- 20.Cario, G., Casavola, A., Lupia, M., & Rosace, C. (2015). SeaModem: A low-cost underwater acoustic modem for shallow water communication. In OCEANS 2015 Genova, Italy (pp. 1–6).Google Scholar
- 21.Lee, D.-S., Hwangbo, S.-H., Jeon, J.-H., & Park, S.-J. (2012). Cortex-M3 and TMS320C6416 Based Acoustic Modem Implementation for Underwater Wireless Communication. In IEEE 15th International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), 2012 (pp. 679–682).Google Scholar
- 22.Shaolong, Z., Dong, F., Xun, L., Yu, L., & Haining, H. (2013). Modularized real-time communication modem design based on software defined radio of underwater acoustic network. In G. Yang (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2012 international conference on communication, electronics and automation engineering, Berlin, Heidelberg, (pp. 1197–1204). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31698-2_168.
- 23.Renner, C., Gabrecht, A., Meyer, B., Osterloh, C., & Maehle, E. (2016). Low-power low-cost acoustic underwater modem. In B. Zerr, L. Jaulin, V. Creuze, N. Debese, I. Quidu, B. Clement, et al. (Eds.), Quantitative monitoring of the underwater environment: results of the international marine science and technology event MOQESM´14. Brest, France (pp. 59–65). Cham: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
- 26.Del Preto, J., Katzschmann, R., Mac Curdy, R., & Rus, D. (2015). A compact acoustic communication module for remote control underwater. In Proceedings of the 10th ACM international conference on underwater networks & Systems (pp. 13).Google Scholar
- 27.Ahmed, N., Abbas, W. B., & Syed, A. A. (2012). A low-cost and flexible underwater platform to promote experiments in UWSN research. In Proceedings of the seventh ACM international conference on underwater networks and systems (pp. 4).Google Scholar
- 29.STEMINC—Piezo Ceramic Cylinder. https://www.steminc.com/PZT/en/piezo-ceramic-cylinder-36x31x20mm-30-khz. Accessed January, 2018.
- 30.Lead Free No-Clean Flux Core Silver Solder. https://www.steminc.com/PZT/en/lead-free-no-clean-flux-core-silver-solder. Accessed January, 2018.
- 31.Benson, B., Li, Y., Kastner, R., Faunce, B., Domond, K., Kimball, D., et al. (2010). Design of a low-cost, underwater acoustic modem for short-range sensor networks. In Oceans 2010, Sydney, 24–27 May 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/oceanssyd.2010.5603816.
- 32.Monolithic Function Generator. https://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Kits/XR2206_104_020808.pdf. Accessed January, 2018.
- 33.FSK Demodulator/Tone Decoder. https://www.exar.com/ds/xr2211av104.pdf. Accessed January, 2018.
- 34.Amplifier Classes. http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/amplifier/amplifier-classes.html. Accessed June 1, 2017.
- 35.Sanchez, A., Blanc, S., Yuste, P., & Serrano, J. J. (2011). A low cost and high efficient acoustic modem for underwater sensor networks. In OCEANS, 2011. Spain, 6–9 June 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/oceans-spain.2011.6003428.
- 36.JFET Amplifier. http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/amplifier/amp_3.html. Accessed January, 2018.
- 37.NI ELVIS Engineering Lab Workstation. http://www.ni.com/en-lb/shop/select/ni-elvis-engineering-lab-workstation. Accessed January, 2018.
- 38.LabVIEW. http://www.ni.com/en-lb/shop/labview.html. Accessed January, 2018.