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Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 100, Issue 4, pp 1837–1844 | Cite as

Double Layers of Truncated Semi Rectangular Monopole Design with Trimmed Half Ground Plane

  • Haitham Alsaif
Article

Abstract

In this research, a new extreme compact half rectangular monopole antenna with modified ground plane is proposed. The antenna is composed of a semi rectangular radiator with modified partial ground plane. The ground plane contains I shapes slots providing ultra-wide operating frequency from 2.6 till 14 GHz based on − 10 dB standard. In addition, the proposed monopole is characterized by its extensively reduced structure. The patch is printed on a substrate material of Rogers Duriod RT5880, which has relative permittivity of \(\epsilon r = 2.2,\)  with a total size of 10 × 14 × 0.9 mm3. The antenna has been studied, and optimized with respect to impedance matching, bandwidth, size, radiation characteristics, and fabrication cost. Both simulation results and experimental measurement are shown with good agreement. The proposed design results show that the monopole is suitable for ultra-wide band systems.

Keywords

Compact Monopole Patch UWB 

1 Introduction

Ultra-wideband technology is playing a crucial role in current wireless communications systems due to the significant increase in the demand of wireless systems [1, 2, 3, 4]. This is because of the major merits of UWB systems such as extreme high data rates, low power consumptions, simplicity and low fabrications costs. Thus, many new designs of UWB antennas have been introduced recently to fulfill the rapid development in such area [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. These designs have several shapes such as circular, rectangular, elliptical shape, E shape, Vivaldi shape and others. The designs are different in shapes as they are in performance which includes operating frequency, impedance matching, radiation pattern, and power gain. Also, a critical factor recently is the patch structure size which needs to be extremely minimized in order to be easily applied in small wireless devices and to save more rooming for other wireless components. However, numerous of previously published ultra-wideband designs have shortages in their performance. These drawbacks are either in their operating frequencies that do not cover the entire UWB allocated by FCC from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz [14] or radiation pattern contains series distortion which affects transmitted data. Also, some of them have relatively large structures sizes that limit applying the designs in small gadgets.

Recently, several methods have been implemented to distribute microwave circuits. One of these concepts is called defected ground structure (DGS), at which the ground plane is purposely modified. Henceforward, the key purpose of this technique is to enhance the performance and to introduce a highly compact patch with extreme-wide bandwidth without sacrificing in the other parameters. The main element of DGS is a resonant slot in the ground plane for efficient coupling with the feeding line [15].The monopole is proposed for short ranges applications of wireless communications. The following section presents the structure design of the antenna is with parametric studies (Table 1).
Table 1

Comparing this design with some published antennas in terms of structure size, power gain, and covering full UWB

Antenna

Size (mm2)

Gain (dBi)

Standard UWB (3.1–10.6 GHz)

[16]

53 × 49

3 to 7

Totally covered

[17]

36 × 35

1.7 to 8

Totally covered

[18]

24 × 22

2 to 4

Totally covered

[19]

26 × 28.5

− 4 to 3

Totally covered

[20]

35 × 30

− 4 to 4

Totally covered

[21]

35 × 30

Not stated

Totally covered

[22]

39 × 38

1.73 to 5

Partially covered

This design

10 × 14

− 1 to 4.7

Totally covered

2 Proposed Monopole Structure

Two dimensional layout and fabricated prototype of the proposed miniaturized monopole antenna are revealed in figure labeled with dimensional parameters shown in Table 2. As illustrated in the previous Fig. 1, the patch has half ground plane at which I shape slots in order to enhance impedance matching to enhance performance which leads to wider bandwidth as shown in details in the next section. The antenna is composed of a semi rectangle printed on a substrate of Rogers RT5880 material with relative permittivity of 2.2 and loss tangent of 0.0009. The patch is fed by a microstrip line with width of 1.8 mm. The design has been modeled with industrial modeling code and fabricated for results verifications and will be discussed in the following section.
Table 2

The proposed UWB monopole parameters in MM

Dimension

L

W

H

Wf

Lf

Value in mm

14

10

0.9

1.8

6.5

Dimension

Wp

Ws

Ws1

Ls

Ls1

Value in mm

4

1

1.5

1

2.5

Dimension

Lg

Lgs

Wgs1

Wgs2

Wg

Value in mm

3.5

3.25

2

1

10

Fig. 1

a Geometry of the proposed antenna top and bottom layers. b Image of fabricated design

3 Modeling Results and Experimental Measurements

Generally, narrow bandwidth antenna has single resonant frequency whereas ultra-wide bandwidth antenna contains multiple resonant frequencies combined forming the operating UWB. Based on this perception, the proposed design has two main resonant frequencies at 5.8 and 10.1 GHz creating a bandwidth of 11.4 GHz starting from 2.6 to 14 GHz as illustrated in Fig. 2. Simulated and experimentally measured return loss (S11) has acceptable agreement with some deviation. This is due common causes such as measuring equipment and fabrication tolerance, soldering…etc. Although, both results show the extreme wide bandwidth that cover entire FCC BW set for such applications.
Fig. 2

Simulated and experimentally measured reflection coefficient in dB versus frequency in GHz

As part of design study, the proposed antenna’s parameters and substrate material have been investigated in order to optimize performance characteristics such as bandwidth and radiation pattern while minimizing structure size. Several dielectric materials, which are FR-4, Polyimide, and Rogers RT 5880 with relative permittivity of 4.3, 3.5, and 2.2 respectively, have been examined as substrates Fig. 3 shows S11 parameter for these materials with respect operating frequency. Clearly, using Rogers RT 5880 (εr = 2.2) bandwidth is the widest compared others with extremely minimized power loss and S11 reaches extreme − 60 dB. This means the accepted power is more than 99.9% of input power at this resonant frequency [2, 3]. Figure 4 displays the antenna reflection coefficient with and without I shape slots. It can be observed the substantial effects of these slots on the impedance matching and bandwidth. Also, width of the microstrip feeding line plays critical role in the optimization process. This is because the feeding line transfer input power into radiator structure where both have to be at high matching. As part of antenna ground plane investigation, return loss for three plots are revealed in Fig. 6. It illustrates how the impedance matching affected by the slots on the ground plane. The Fig. 5 shows that the narrow slots (0.6 mm) leads to widest bandwidth compared to wide slots (1 mm). In addition, Fig. 6 shows several values of wf in mm unit where the best S11 is obtained at 1.8 mm.
Fig. 3

S11 in dB as a function of frequency in GHz using different substrate materials (Polyamide, FR4, and Rogers RT5880)

Fig. 4

The reflection coefficient in dB for the monopole with and without the defected partial ground plane structure (DGS)

Fig. 5

The reflection coefficient S11for full ground plane, narrow slots, and wide slots

Fig. 6

Studying the width parameter of the feeding line (wf) for the presented design

Figure 7 illustrates the proposed antenna normalized simulated and measured radiation pattern at the two main resonant frequencies 5.8, and 10.1 GHz. the radiation patterns are revealed at the two orthogonal planes, E plane or elevation plane and H plane or azimuth plane in polar forms. These planes (E and H) illustrate the entire radiation shape for the proposed antenna. Throughout the entire bandwidth, the radiation pattern at the azimuth plane has an omni-directional pattern. Besides, elevation plane has approximately bi-directional form with minor distortion. Hence, the presented patch is independent of placement position during the broad bandwidth. Moreover, the measured monopole power gain is plotted in Fig. 8 over its super wide bandwidth.
Fig. 7

The normalized radiation pattern for E and H planes in polar form at the two resonant frequencies

Fig. 8

The measured monopole power gain in dB versus operating frequency in GHz

4 Conclusion

A new highly miniaturized monopole design is proposed for short range systems applications. The antenna is minimized and has a size of (14 × 10 × 0.9 mm3), while maintaining high performance characteristics. The presented patch has an extreme wide operating frequency from 2.6 to 14 GHz that covers further than UWB allocated by FCC [14] for wideband systems. The design radiates in approximate omni-directional pattern throughout the bandwidth. Finally, the truncated design has rival performance compared to several other larger size designs that marks it highly suitable for exceedingly compact wireless systems.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgments to the deanship of scientific research at the University of Hail, KSA for supporting and funding this project (BA-1512).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of EngineeringUniversity of HailHailKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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