A Vector-Based Routing Protocol in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Sayyed Majid Mazinani
  • Hadi Yousefi
  • Mostafa Mirzaie


One major concern shared by many researchers about underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), with respect to the limitations and particularities of underwater environment, is the problem of routing. These limitations include three-dimensional topology, limited bandwidth, node movement, long delay, limited energy, and construction costs. The new routing protocols for underwater networks have been developed on the basis of voracious routing systems. The main problem with UWSNs is finding an efficient route between the source and the target to send more packets to the target with lower levels of energy consumption. In this research, by improving VBF algorithm, which is dependent on the radius of the routing pipe, an algorithm is introduced which considers pipe radius as a function of the environment’s dimensions and of the range and the number of nodes. Consequently, by changing one of these parameters, the radius of the routing pipe changes. However, to control the energy consumed by the nodes, there exists a function that, if the recipient node’s energy to receive the packet is much lower than that of the sender node, the proposed method reduces the size of the routing pipe’s radius to lessen its chance of being selected as the guiding node so that other nodes are able to have the chance of getting the packet’s guiding node. The proposed algorithm has been compared with VBVA, HHVBF, and VBF protocols; the simulation results obtained from NS-2 simulator indicate that the proposed protocol could cut back on energy consumption, especially in networks with high number of nodes, by relying on changing the width of the routing pipe in proportion to network density. It was also successful in delivering more packets in non-dense networks.


Underwater sensor networks Routing algorithms NS-2 Routing pipe 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Imam Reza International UniversityMashhadIran
  2. 2.Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur BranchNeyshaburIran

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