Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 99, Issue 2, pp 681–694 | Cite as

Shore-to-Undersea Visible Light Communication

  • Arsyad Ramadhan Darlis
  • Willy Anugrah Cahyadi
  • Yeon-Ho ChungEmail author


In this paper, a novel visible light based shore-to-undersea (S2US) communication is proposed. It considers various properties of both maritime and undersea environments such as wave height, wind speed, and absorption. A lighthouse transmits the signal using white light emitting diodes (LEDs) and this signal is received by a buoy that acts as a beacon to relay to the undersea receiver. The beacon employs the decode-and-forward (DF) method in such a way that green LEDs transmit the DF processed signal to the undersea receivers via the undersea optical channel. The performance of the proposed S2US system was first evaluated via simulations with the JONSWAP spectrum model representing the maritime optical channel and the Jerlov water type representing the undersea optical channel. The results show that the transmitted signal undergoes significant attenuation, particularly over the undersea optical channel. At the reference distance of 1.025 km with Jerlov water type I, a bit error rate performance of 10−4 is achieved with a data rate of 1 Mbps. The S2US was further verified with experiments in terms of received signal level on a laboratory scale. The comparative analysis demonstrates that the simulation and experiment results are in good agreement.


Decode-and-forward (DF) mode Jerlov water type classification JONSWAP (JS) spectrum model Shore-to-undersea visible light communication 



This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2015R1D1A3A01017713).


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Kaushal, H., & Kaddoum, G. (2016). Underwater optical wireless communication. IEEE Access, 4, 1518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rajbhandari, S., Chun, H., Faulkner, G., Cameron, K., Jalajakumari, A. V. N., Henderson, R., et al. (2015). High-speed integrated visible light communication system: Device constraints and design considerations. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 33, 1750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    International association of marine aids to navigation and lighthouse authorities (IALA). June 15, 2017.
  5. 5.
    The lighthouse directory. June 15, 2017.
  6. 6.
    National data buoy center. June 15, 2017.
  7. 7.
    Kim H. J., Sewaiwar A., & Chung Y. H. (2014). Shore-to-sea maritime communication with the visible light transmission. In Europment conference. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim, H. J., Sewaiwar, A., & Chung, Y. H. (2016). Multi-hop relay-based maritime visible light communication. Chinese Optics Letters, 14(1), 050607.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim, H. J., Sewaiwar, A., & Chung, Y. H. (2015). High-performance time-code diversity scheme for shore-to-sea maritime visible-light communication. Journal of the Optical Society of Korea, 19, 514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    VLCC lighthouse project. June 15, 2017.
  11. 11.
    Callaham, M. B. (1981). Submarine communication. IEEE Communication Magazine, 19, 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shen, C., Guo, Y., Oubei, H. M., Ng, T. K., Liu, G., Park, K. H., et al. (2016). 20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate. Optics Express, 24, 25502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen, Y. F., et al. (2017). 26 m/5.5 Gbps air–water optical wireless communication based on an OFDM-modulated 520-nm laser diode. Optics Express, 25, 13.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pompili, D., & Akyildiz, I. F. (2009). Overview of networking protocols for underwater wireless communications. IEEE Communication Magazine, 47, 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li, W., Huang, Z. T., Gong, M. L., & Ji, Y. F. (2016). Land-to-underwater optical communication system based on underwater visible light communication network units and fiber links. In Asia communications and photonics conference. Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holthuijsen, L. H. (2007). Waves in oceanic and coastal waters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hasselmann, D. E., Dunckel, M., & Ewing, J. A. (1980). Directional wave spectra observed during Jonswap. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 10, 1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nguyen, H., Bui, A., Do, D., & Voznak, M. (2016). Imperfect channel state information of AF and DF energy harvesting cooperative networks. China Communications, 11, 1119.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ali, M. A. A. (2015). Characteristics of optical channel for underwater optical wireless communication system. IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 10, 1.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ali, M. A. A. (2015). Characteristics of optical channel for underwater optical wireless communication based on visible light. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 9, 437.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ghassemlooy, Z., Popoola, W., & Rajbhandari, S. (2013). Optical wireless communication: System and channel modeling with Matlab. Abingdon: Taylor and Francis Group.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arnon, S. (2010). Underwater optical wireless communication network. Optical Engineering, 49, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information and Communications EngineeringPukyong National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations