Advertisement

Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 97, Issue 1, pp 977–998 | Cite as

E2PKA: An Energy-Efficient and PV-Based Key Agreement Scheme for Body Area Networks

  • Wonsuk Choi
  • In Seok Kim
  • Dong Hoon Lee
Article

Abstract

Recently, several types of body sensors have been developed and adopted to monitor health conditions of patients. Because health-related information is very sensitive, this information should be handled securely. Key agreement is the first basic step that should be performed to provide body sensors with security services such as encryption and authentication. In particular, key agreement using physiological values (PVs) as the source of a secret key (termed PV-based key agreement) has attracted much attention because it does not require any pre-shared secret information. Key agreement among body sensors should be extremely efficient because the battery lifetime is considered the same as that of the body sensors. Unfortunately, in the design of previous PV-based key-agreement methods, power consumption was not adequately considered, making them impractical. In this paper, we propose a key-agreement method between body sensors, the energy-efficient and PV-based key agreement scheme (E2PKA), which is extremely efficient in terms of reducing the power consumption. The significant savings in power consumption of body sensors come from the reduced communication, which is the main reason for battery drain. As a result, E2PKA results in a power consumption savings of at least 90% for body sensors when compared to previous PV-based key-agreement methods.

Keywords

PV-based key agreement Body area networks Security 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by Samsung Electronics.

References

  1. 1.
    Frequency-domain linear regression. Available. http://www.mathworks.co.kr/help/signal/ug/frequency-domain-linear-regression.html?refresh=true, urldate = 2016-01-15.
  2. 2.
    Ubpulse 360, laxtha inc. Available. http://www.laxtha.kr/LXD/LXD27_ubpulse360_Manual.pdf , urldate = 2016-01-15.
  3. 3.
    Ali, A., & Khan, F. (2014). A broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for wireless body area networks. Journal of Medical Systems, 38(5), 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bagade, P., Banerjee, A., Milazzo, J., Gupta, S.K. (May 2013). Protect your BSN: No handshakes, just namaste! In 2013 IEEE international conference on body sensor networks (BSN), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bao, S.-D., Poon, C. C. Y., Zhang, Y.-T., & feng Shen, L. (2008). Using the timing information of heartbeats as an entity identifier to secure body sensor network. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 12(6), 772–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bao, S.-D., Zhang, Y.-T., Shen, L.-F. (2006). A design proposal of security architecture for medical body sensor networks. In Proceedings of the international workshop on wearable and implantable body sensor networks, BSN ’06, pp. 84–90, Washington, DC, USA, 2006. IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bishop, C. M., & Nasrabadi, N. M. (2006). Pattern recognition and machine learning (Vol. 1). New York: Springer.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blake-Wilson, S., & Menezes, A. (1999). Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocols. In Proceedings of the selected areas in cryptography, SAC ’98 (pp. 339–361). London, UK: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chang, S.-Y., Hu, Y.-C., Anderson, H., Fu, T., & Huang, E. Y. L. (2012). Body area network security: Robust key establishment using human body channel. In Proceedings of the 3rd USENIX conference on health security and privacy, HealthSec’12 (pp. 5–5). Berkeley: CA, USA, USENIX Association.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cherukuri ,S., Venkatasubramanian, K. & Gupta S. K. S. (2003). Biosec: A biometric based approach for securing communication in wireless networks of biosensors implanted in the human body. In 2003 international conference on parallel processing workshops, 2003. Proceedings, pp. 432–439.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Denning, T., Borning, A., Friedman, B., Gill, B.T., Kohno, T. & Maisel, W.H. (2010). Patients, pacemakers, and implantable defibrillators: Human values and security for wireless implantable medical devices. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, CHI ’10 (pp. 917–926). New York, NY, USA: ACM.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Denning, T., Fu, K. & Kohno, T. (2008). Absence makes the heart grow fonder: New directions for implantable medical device security. In Proceedings of the 3rd conference on hot topics in security, HOTSEC’08, (pp. 5:1–5:7), Berkeley, CA, USA: USENIX Association.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gollakota, S., Hassanieh, H., Ransford, B., Katabi, D., & Fu, K. (2011). They can hear your heartbeats: Non-invasive security for implantable medical devices. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 41(4), 2–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Greenspon, A. J., Patel, J. D., Lau, E., Ochoa, J. A., Frisch, D. R., Ho, R. T., et al. (2011). 16-year trends in the infection burden for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter–defibrillators in the united states: 1993 to 2008. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 58(10), 1001–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Halperin, D., Heydt-Benjamin, T., Ransford, B., Clark, S., Defend, B., Morgan, W., Fu, K., Kohno, T. & Maisel, W. (2008). Pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators: Software radio attacks and zero-power defenses. In IEEE symposium on security and privacy, 2008. SP 2008, pp. 129–142.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hei, X., Du, X., Wu, J. & Hu, F. (2010). Defending resource depletion attacks on implantable medical devices. In Global telecommunications conference (GLOBECOM 2010), 2010 IEEE, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hu, C., Cheng, X., Zhang, F., Wu, D., Liao, X., & Chen, D. (2013). OPFKA: Secure and efficient ordered-physiological-feature-based key agreement for wireless body area networks. In INFOCOM, 2013 Proceedings IEEE, pp. 2274–2282.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jovanov, E., Milenkovic, A., Otto, C., & de Groen, P. (2005). A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 2(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Juels, A., & Sudan, M. (2006). A fuzzy vault scheme. Designs, Codes and Cryptography, 38(2), 237–257.CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lazaro, A., Girbau, D., & Villarino, R. (2010). Analysis of vital signs monitoring using an IR-UWB radar. Progress in Electromagnetics Research, 100, 265–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Le Cam, L. (1990). Maximum likelihood: An introduction. International statistical review/Revue Internationale de Statistique, pp. 153–171.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li, C., Raghunathan, A. & Jha, N. (2011). Hijacking an insulin pump: Security attacks and defenses for a diabetes therapy system. In 2011 13th IEEE international conference on e-health networking applications and services (Healthcom), pp. 150–156.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lorincz, K., Malan, D., Fulford-Jones, T., Nawoj, A., Clavel, A., Shnayder, V., et al. (2004). Sensor networks for emergency response: Challenges and opportunities. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 3(4), 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Minsky, Y., Trachtenberg, A., & Zippel, R. (2003). Set reconciliation with nearly optimal communication complexity. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 49(9), 2213–2218.CrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. of Federal Regulations. “title 47 part 95 subpart i c.f.r 47, 95 subpar i, federal communications commission - medical device radiocommunication service(medradio)”, http://transition.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Engineering_Technology/Orders/2000/fcc00211.pdf,urldate = 2014-11-13.
  26. 26.
    Poon, C. C. Y., Zhang, Y.-T., & Bao, S.-D. (2006). A novel biometrics method to secure wireless body area sensor networks for telemedicine and m-health. IEEE Communications Magazine, 44(4), 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rasmussen, K. B., Castelluccia, C., Heydt-Benjamin, T. S., & Capkun, S. (2009). Proximity-based access control for implantable medical devices. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM conference on computer and communications security, CCS ’09 (pp. 410–419). New York, NY, USA: ACM.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rostami, M., Juels, A., & Koushanfar, F. (2013). Heart-to-heart (h2h): Authentication for implanted medical devices. In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGSAC conference on computer & #38; communications security, CCS ’13 (pp. 1099–1112). New York, NY, USA: ACM.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rukhin, A., Soto, J., Nechvatal, J., Barker, E., Leigh, S., Levenson, M., & et al. (2010). A statistical test suite for random and pseudorandom number generators for cryptographic applications, NIST special publication 800-22 (revised may 15).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shen, W., Ning, P., He, X., & Dai, H. (2013). Ally friendly jamming: How to jam your enemy and maintain your own wireless connectivity at the same time. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE symposium on security and privacy, SP ’13 (pp. 174–188). Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Venkatasubramanian, K., Banerjee, A. & Gupta, S. K. S. (2008). Plethysmogram-based secure inter-sensor communication in body area networks. In Military communications conference, 2008. MILCOM 2008. IEEE, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Venkatasubramanian, K., Banerjee, A., & Gupta, S. K. S. (2010). Pska: Usable and secure key agreement scheme for body area networks. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, 14(1), 60–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Venkatasubramanian, K., Venkatasubramanian, Banerjee, A. & Gupta, S. (2008). EKG-based key agreement in body sensor networks. In: INFOCOM workshops 2008, IEEE, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wander, A., Gura, N., Eberle, H., Gupta, V. & Shantz, S. (2005). Energy analysis of public-key cryptography for wireless sensor networks. In Third IEEE international conference on pervasive computing and communications, 2005. PerCom 2005, pp. 324–328.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xu, F., Qin, Z., Tan, C., Wang, B. & Li, Q. (2011). IMDGuard: Securing implantable medical devices with the external wearable guardian. In INFOCOM, 2011 proceedings IEEE, pp. 1862–1870.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhan, C., Baine, W., Sedrakyan, A., & Steiner, C. (2008). Cardiac device implantation in the united states from 1997 through 2004: A population-based analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(1), 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhou, J., Cao, Z. & Dong, X. (2013). BDK: Secure and efficient biometric based deterministic key agreement in wireless body area networks. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on body area networks, BodyNets ’13 (pp. 488–494), ICST, Brussels, Belgium, Belgium. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Information SecurityKorea UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations