Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 96, Issue 1, pp 1451–1474 | Cite as

Anonymous Password Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol in the Standard Model

  • Xuexian Hu
  • Jiang Zhang
  • Zhenfeng Zhang
  • Fengmei Liu


Anonymous password authenticated key exchange (APAKE) allows a client holding a low-entropy password to establish a session key with a server in an authenticated and anonymous way. As a very convenient solution for personal privacy protection, it has attracted much attention in recent years. However, almost all existing APAKE protocols are designed in the random oracle model. In this paper, we propose the first password-only APAKE protocol (called APAKE-S) with proven security in the standard model, i.e., without random oracle heuristic. The resulting protocol guarantees AKE security, client anonymity and mutual authentication. Moreover, since the building blocks in our construction can be instantiated based on numerous hard assumptions (e.g., decisional Diffie–Hellman, Quadratic Residuosity, and N-residuosity assumptions), our APAKE-S protocol is actually a generic construction which implies a series of efficient APAKE protocols in the standard model.


Password authentication Anonymous authentication Key exchange protocol Standard model 



The work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61502527, 61602046, U1536205, 61379150), the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB338003 and 2012CB315905), and Foundation of Science and Technology on Information Assurance Laboratory (No. KJ-14-004).


  1. 1.
    Bellovin, S., & Merritt, M. (1992). Encrypted key exchange: Password-based protocols secure against dictionary attacks. In IEEE computer society symposium on research in security and privacy (pp. 72–84).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bellare, M., Pointcheval, D., & Rogaway, P. (2000). Authenticated key exchange secure against dictionary attacks. In Advances in cryptology—EUROCRYPT 2000. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 1807, pp. 139–155).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boyko, V., MacKenzie, P., & Patel, S. (2000). Provably secure password-authenticated key exchange using diffie-hellman. In Advances in cryptology—EUROCRYPT 2000. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 1807, pp. 156–171).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Katz, J., Ostrovsky, R., & Yung, M. (2001). Efficient password-authenticated key exchange using human-memorable passwords. In Advances in cryptology—EUROCRYPT 2001. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 2045, pp. 475–494).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jiang, S., & Gong, G. (2005) Password based key exchange with mutual authentication. In Selected areas in cryptography. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 3357, pp. 267–279).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benhamouda, F., Blazy, O., Chevalier, C., Pointcheval, D., & Vergnaud, D. (2013). New techniques for SPHFs and efficient one-round PAKE protocols. In Advances in cryptology—CRYPTO 2013. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 8042, pp. 449–475).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang, L., Zhang, Z., & Hu, X. (2016). Uc-secure two-server password-based authentication protocol and its applications. In Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia conference on computer and communications security (pp. 153–164).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    He, D., Zeadally, S., Kumar, N., & Lee, J. (2016). Anonymous authentication for wireless body area networks with provable security. IEEE Systems Journal.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang, D., He, D., Wang, P., & Chu, C. (2015). Anonymous two-factor authentication in distributed systems: Certain goals are beyond attainment. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 12(4), 428–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xia, Z., Wang, X., Zhang, L., Qin, Z., Sun, X., & Ren, K. (2016). A privacy-preserving and copy-deterrence content-based image retrieval scheme in cloud computing. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 11(11), 2594–2608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xia, Z., Wang, X., Sun, X., & Wang, Q. (2016). A secure and dynamic multi-keyword ranked search scheme over encrypted cloud data. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 27(2), 340–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fu, Z., Ren, K., Shu, J., Sun, X., & Huang, F. (2016). Enabling personalized search over encrypted outsourced data with efficiency improvement. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 27(9), 2546–2559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fu, Z., Sun, X., Liu, Q., Zhou, L., & Shu, J. (2015). Achieving efficient cloud search services: Multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data supporting parallel computing. IEICE Transactions on Communications, 98(1), 190–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma, T., Zhou, J., Tang, M., Tian, Y., AlDhelaan, A., AlRodhaan, M., & Lee, S. (2015). Social network and tag sources based augmenting collaborative recommender system. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, 98(4), 902–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lindell, Y. (2007). Anonymous authentication. Journal of Privacy and Confidentiality, 2(2), 35–63.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Viet, D., Yamamura, A., & Tanaka, H. (2005). Anonymous password-based authenticated key exchange. In Progress in cryptology—INDOCRYPT 2005. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 3797, pp. 244–257).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hu, X., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., & Xu, J. (2017). Universally composable anonymous password authenticated key exchange. Science China Information Sciences, 60(5), 52107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang, Z., Yang, K., Hu, X., & Wang, Y. (2016). Practical anonymous password authentication and tls with anonymous client authentication. In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC conference on computer and communications security (pp. 1179–1191).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jiang, Q., Ma, J., Li, G., & Yang, L. (2014). An efficient ticket based authentication protocol with unlinkability for wireless access networks. Wireless Personal Communications, 77(2), 1489–1506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    ISO/IEC wd 20009-4. (2014). Information technology—Security techniques—Anonymous entity authentication—Part 4: Mechanisms based on weak secrets. Technical report.
  21. 21.
    Shin, S., Kobara, K., & Imai, H. (2007). A secure threshold anonymous password-authenticated key exchange protocol. In Advances in information and computer security. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 4752, pp. 444–458).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang, J., & Zhang, Z. (2008). A new anonymous password-based authenticated key exchange protocol. In Progress in cryptology—INDOCRYPT 2008. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 5365, pp. 200–212).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jablon, D. P. (1996). Strong password-only authenticated key exchange. SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 26(5), 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shin, S., Kobara, K., & Imai, H. (2009). Very-efficient anonymous password-authenticated key exchange and its extensions. In International symposium on applied algebra, algebraic algorithms, and error-correcting codes (pp. 149–158).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang, Y., Zhou, J., Weng, J., & Bao, F. (2009). A new approach for anonymous password authentication. In 25th Annual computer security applications conference (pp. 199–208).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang, Y., Zhou, J., Wong, J., & Bao, F. (2010). Towards practical anonymous password authentication. In 26th Annual computer security applications conference (pp. 59–68), New York, NY, USA.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Qian, H., Gong, J., & Zhou, Y. (2012). Anonymous password-based key exchange with low resources consumption and better user-friendliness. Security and Communication Networks, 5(12), 1379–1393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shin, S., & Kobara, K. (2017). Simple anonymous password-based authenticated key exchange (sapake), reconsidered. IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, E100.A(2), 639–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leurent, G., & Nguyen, P. Q. (2009). How risky is the random-oracle model? In Advances in cryptology-CRYPTO 2009 (pp. 445–464).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Koblitz, N., & Menezes, A. J. (2007). Another look at “provable security”. Journal of Cryptology, 20(1), 3–37.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bellare, M., Boldyreva, A., & Palacio, A. (2004). An uninstantiable random-oracle-model scheme for a hybrid-encryption problem. In Advances in cryptology-EUROCRYPT 2004 (pp. 171–188).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Abdalla, M., Benhamouda, F., Blazy, O., Chevalier, C., & Pointcheval, D. (2013). SPHF-friendly non-interactive commitments. In Advances in Cryptology—ASIACRYPT 2013. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 8269, pp. 214–234).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Groce, A., & Katz, J. (2010). A new framework for efficient password-based authenticated key exchange. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM conference on computer and communications security, CCS ‘10 (pp. 516–525).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shoup, V. (2001). A proposal for an ISO standard for public key encryption. Report version 2.1.
  35. 35.
    Cramer, R., & Shoup, V. (2002). Universal hash proofs and a paradigm for adaptive chosen ciphertext secure public-key encryption. In Advances in cryptology—EUROCRYPT 2002. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 2332, pp. 45–64).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gennaro, R., & Lindell, Y. (2003). A framework for password-based authenticated key exchange. In Advances in cryptology—EUROCRYPT 2003. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 2656, pp. 524–543).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Abdalla, M., Chevalier, C., & Pointcheval, D. (2009). Smooth projective hashing for conditionally extractable commitments. In Advances in cryptology—CRYPTO 2009. Lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 5677, pp. 671–689).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Katz, J., & Vaikuntanathan, V. (2013). Round-optimal password-based authenticated key exchange. Journal of Cryptology, 26(4), 714–743.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    ElGamal, T. (1985). A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms. In Advances in cryptology (pp. 10–18).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Even, S., Goldreich, O., & Micali, S. (1996). On-line/off-line digital signatures. Journal of Cryptology, 9(1), 35–67.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lamport, L. (1979). Constructing digital signatures from a one way function. Technical report, SRI International.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Akinyele, J., Garman, C., Miers, I., Pagano, M., Rushanan, M., Green, M., & Rubin, A. D. (2013). Charm: A framework for rapidly prototyping cryptosystems. Journal of Cryptographic Engineering, 3(2), 111–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lin, H., & Tzeng, W. (2009). Anonymous password based authenticated key exchange with sub-linear communication. Journal of Information Science and Engineering, 25(3), 907–920.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bresson, E., Chevassut, O., & Pointcheval, D. (2003). Security proofs for an efficient password-based key exchange. In Proceedings of the 10th ACM conference on Computer and communications security (pp. 241–250).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuexian Hu
    • 1
  • Jiang Zhang
    • 2
  • Zhenfeng Zhang
    • 3
  • Fengmei Liu
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Mathematical Engineering and Advanced ComputingZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of CryptologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Trusted Computing and Information Assurance Laboratory, Institute of SoftwareChinese Academy of ScienceBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Science and Technology on Information Assurance LaboratoryBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations