Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) for Indoor Image Sensor Communication System
In this paper, we propose an indoor image sensor communication (ISC) system comprising an attentive indoor environment in which rolling-shutter cameras (including smart phone cameras) are used to receive data from light sources. The challenges of intended system mainly come from the receiver side, including its rolling shutter mechanism, its low and time-variant frame rate (e.g., no greater than 30 fps), and the narrow bandwidth response (i.e. several kHz baseband). Also, the requirements of flicker-free modulation enabling the dimming capacity, and indoor distance (i.e., up to 10 m) are unmitigated challenges. To resolve all mentioned challenges, we propose new hybrid modulation schemes, including M-ary frequency-shift keying (M-FSK) modulation and a hybrid modulation of M-FSK and phase-shift keying (2-PSK) for ISC. Simulation, numerical analysis and experiment results are given to illustrate the feasibility of the intended system.
KeywordsIndoor image sensor communication (ISC) Rolling shutter camera Modulation and coding scheme M-FSK 2-PSK Pair of LEDs Optical wireless communication (OWC) IEEE TG7m
This work was supported by Institute for Information and communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (No. R0127-15-1025, Development of Optical Wireless Communications (OWC) Standardization)
- 3.Official website of TG7r1. Available online: http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/IEEE%20802_15%20WPAN%2015_7%20Revision1%20Task%20Group.htm.
- 4.Technical Considerations Document. Available online: https://mentor.ieee.org/802.15/documents?n=2&is_dcn=DCN%2C%20Title%2C%20Author%20or%20Affiliation&is_group=007a. Accessed February 29, 2016.
- 5.TG7r1, ISC/LR-PD PHY Modes Classification for Draft Document D0. https://mentor.ieee.org/802.15/dcn/16/15-16-0311-00-007a-isc-lr-pd-phy-modes-classification-for-draft-document-d0.pptx
- 6.IEEE 802.15. Documents TG7r1. Available online: https://mentor.ieee.org/802.15/documents?n=2&is_dcn=DCN%2C%20Title%2C%20Author%20or%20Affiliation&is_group=007a
- 7.FRAMOS trend studies, International Trends till 2012 Survey Results International technology Trend study to assess market situation and current trends in industrial camera technology 2010 to 2012 (2012).Google Scholar
- 8.Linkemann, J., & Weber, B. Global Shutter, Rolling Shutter—Functionality and characteristics of two exposure methods (Shutter Variants). http://www.inspect-online.com/file/track/7095/1.
- 10.VLC 802.15.7-2011—IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks—Part 15.7: Short-range wireless optical communication using visible light. Available online: http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/802.15.7-2011.html. Accessed February 29, 2016.
- 11.Nagura T., Yamazato T., Katayama M., Yendo T., Fujii T., & Okada H. (2010). Improved decoding methods of visible light communication system for ITS using LED array and high-speed camera. In Vehicular technology conference (VTC 2010-Spring), pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
- 12.Liu, Hugh Sing, & Pang, G. (2003). Positioning beacon system using digital camera and LEDs. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 52(2), 406–419.Google Scholar
- 14.Roberts, R. D. (2013). Undersampled frequency shift ON-OFF keying (UFSOOK) for camera communications (CamCom). In 22nd wireless and optical communication conference, pp. 645–648.Google Scholar
- 15.Luo, P., Ghassemlooy, Z., Le Minh, H., Tang, X., & Tsai, H. M. (2014). Undersampled phase shift ON-OFF keying for camera communication. In IEEE international conference on wireless communications and signal processing (WCSP), pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
- 16.Jang, Y. M., & Nguyen, T. Kookmin University PHY sub-proposal for ISC using Dimmable Spatial M-PSK (DSM-PSK), IEEE mentor 802.15. https://mentor.ieee.org/802.15/dcn/16/15-16-0015-02-007a-kookmin-university-phy-sub-proposal-for-isc-using-dimmable-spatial-m-psk-dsm-psk.pptx.
- 18.Chen, S. H., & Chow, C. W. (2014). Color-shift keying and code-division multiple-access transmission for RGB-LED visible light communications using mobile phone camera. IEEE Photonics Journal, 6(6), 1–6.Google Scholar
- 20.Hu, W., Gu, H., & Pu, Q. (2013). LightSync: Unsynchronized visual communication over screen-camera links. In MobiCom ’13 proceedings of the 19th annual international conference on mobile computing & networking, pp. 15–26.Google Scholar
- 21.Boubezari, R., Le Minh, H., Ghassemlooy, Z., Bouridane, A., & Pham, A. T. (2014) Data detection for Smartphone visible light communications. In 9th international symposium on communication systems, networks and digital signal (CSNDSP). Manchester, pp. 1034–1038.Google Scholar
- 23.Yang, Z., Wang, Z., Zhang, J., Huang, C., & Zhang, Q. (2015). Wearables can afford: Light-weight indoor positioning with visible light. In MobiSys ’15 proceedings of the 13th annual international conference on mobile systems, applications, and services, pp. 317–330.Google Scholar
- 25.Kuo, Y-S., Pannuto, P., Hsiao, K-J., & Dutta, P. (2014). Luxapose: Indoor positioning with mobile phones and visible light. In The 20th annual international conference on mobile computing and networking, USA, 07–11 Sep, 2014 , pp. 447–458.Google Scholar
- 27.Danakis, C., Afgani, M., Povey. G., Underwood, I., & Haas, H. (2012). Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication. In Proceedings of the IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wksps), Anaheim, California, USA, 3–7 December 2012, pp. 1244–1248.Google Scholar
- 29.Aoyama, H., & Oshima, M. (2015). Visible light communication using a conventional image sensor. In 12th annual IEEE consumer communications and networking conference (CCNC), pp. 103–108.Google Scholar
- 30.Lee, H-Y., Lin, H-M., Wei, Y-L., Wu, H-I., Tsai, H-M., & Lin, K. C.-J. (2015). Rollinglight: Enabling line-of-sight light-to-camera communications. In The 13th annual international conference on mobile systems, applications, and services, Florence, Italy, 19–22 May, 2015, pp. 167–180.Google Scholar
- 31.Rajagopal, N., Lazik, P., & Rowe, A. (2014). Visual light landmarks for mobile devices. In Proceedings of the 13th international symposium on sensor networks, Berlin, Germany, 15–17 April 2014, pp. 249–260.Google Scholar
- 32.Jang, Y. M., Nguyen, T., & Hyun, H. C. Kookmin University PHY sub-proposal for ISC using a Compatible M-FSK Scheme (CM-FSK), IEEE mentor 802.15. https://mentor.ieee.org/802.15/dcn/16/15-16-0014-01-007a-kookmin-university-phy-sub-proposal-for-isc-using-a-compatible-m-fsk-scheme-cm-fsk.pptx.
- 33.OOK, ASK and FSK modulation in the presence of an interfering signal. http://wireless.murata.com/media/products/apnotes/ook.
- 34.Hong, C. H., Hossain, M. A., Nguyen, T., & Jang, Y. M. (2016). Hybrid modulation scheme for indoor image sensor communication system using smartphone and LEDs. In The eighth international conference on ubiquitous and future networks, 5–8 July, 2016, pp. 472–474.Google Scholar
- 35.Hong, C. H., Nguyen, T., Jang, S. B., Jeong, S. H., Rhee, S. H., & Jang, Y. M. (2016). Channel modeling and system analysis for seaside image sensor communications. In 2016 international conference on information networking (ICOIN), 13–15 Jan 2016, pp. 385–389.Google Scholar
- 36.Islam, A., Hossain, M. A., Nguyen, T., & Jang, Y. M. (2016). High temporal–spatial resolution optical wireless communication technique using image sensor. In 2016 international conference on information and communication technology convergence (ICTC), Jeju Island, South Korea, 2016, pp. 1165–1169.Google Scholar