Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 93, Issue 4, pp 969–986 | Cite as

Capture-Aware Couple-Resolution Blocking Protocol in RFID Systems

  • Hae-il Choi
  • Hyung-jik Kim
  • Sunwoong Choi


In radio frequency identification systems, some applications require tags to be identified repeatedly. To achieve this, many protocols have been proposed that use information obtained from the previous tag identification process to quickly re-identify tags remaining within the communication range of the reader. However, none of these protocols consider the capture effect, and thus may not be effective in real wireless communication environments. When multiple tags simultaneously reply to a reader, the reader may consider the strongest signal to be a successful transmission rather than a collision and ignore all other replies. In this paper, we propose a new capture-aware anti-collision protocol based on the couple-resolution blocking (CRB) protocol that efficiently identifies tags repeatedly. We demonstrate that the CRB protocol suffers from the capture effect in which some tags may not be identified in practical environments. To solve this problem of the capture effect, we modify the CRB protocol by adopting the state-of-the-art capture-aware anti-collision protocol known as the multi-round collision tree (MRCT) protocol. Through computer simulation, we show that the proposed protocol with MRCT can reduce the number of slots required by approximately 50% in a random topology where most tags remain in the communication range of the reader.


Anti-collision algorithm Capture effect RFID tag re-identification 



This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (No. 2011-0023856) and (No. 2016R1A5A1012966).


  1. 1.
    Finkenzeller, K. (2003). RFID handbook: Fundamentals and applications in contactless smart cards and identification. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hush, D. R., & Wood, C. (1998). Analysis of tree algorithms for RFID arbitration. In Proceedings of IEEE international symposium on information theory (p. 107).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Law, C., Lee, K., & Siu, K. Y. (2000). Efficient memoryless protocol for tag identification. In Proceedings of the 4th international workshop on discrete algorithms and methods for mobile computing and communications (DIALM 2000) (pp. 75–84).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Myung, J., Lee, W., & Shih, T. K. (2006). An adaptive memoryless protocol for RFID tag collision arbitration. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 8(5), 1096–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Myung, J., Lee, W., & Srivastava, J. (2006). Adaptive binary splitting for efficient RFID tag anti-collision. IEEE Communications Letters, 10(3), 144–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Myung, J., Lee, W., Srivastava, J., & Shih, T. K. (2007). Tag-splitting: Adaptive collision arbitration protocols for RFID tag identification. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 18(6), 763–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lai, Y. C., & Lin, C. C. (2008). A pair-resolution blocking algorithm on adaptive binary splitting for RFID tag identification. IEEE Communications Letters, 12(6), 432–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lai, Y. C., & Lin, C. C. (2009). Two blocking algorithms on adaptive binary splitting: Single and pair resolutions for RFID tag identification. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, 17(3), 962–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lai, Y. C., & Lin, C. C. (2012). Two couple-resolution blocking protocols on adaptive query splitting for RFID tag identification. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 11(10), 1450–1463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hu, Y., Chang, I., & Li, J. (2015). Hybrid blocking algorithm for identification of overlapping staying tags between multiple neighboring readers in RFID systems. IEEE Sensors Journal, 15(7), 4076–4085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maguire, Y., & Pappu, R. (2009). An optimal Q-algorithm for the ISO 18000-6C RFID protocol. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 6(1), 16–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Floerkemeier, C., & Lampe, M. (2004). Issues with RFID usage in ubiquitous computing applications. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3001, 183–193.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wu, V. K. Y., & Campbell, R. H. (2009). Using generalized query tree to cope with the capture effect in RFID singulation. In Proceedings of the 6th IEEE consumer communications and networking conference (CCNC 2009) (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lai, Y. C., & Hsiao, L. Y. (2010). General binary tree protocol for coping with the capture effect in RFID tag identification. IEEE Communications Letters, 14(3), 208–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Choi, S., Choi, J., & Yoo, J. (2013). MRCT: An efficient tag identification protocol in RFID systems with capture effect. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 7(7), 1624–1637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choi, H., Kim, H., & Choi, S. (2015). New couple-resolution blocking tag identification protocol in RFID systems with capture effect. In Proceedings of the 7th international conference on ubiquitous and future networks (ICUFN 2015) (pp. 29–34).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jia, X., Feng, Q., & Ma, C. (2010). An efficient anti-collision protocol for RFID tag identification. IEEE Communications Letters, 14(11), 1014–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringKookmin UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations