Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 90, Issue 3, pp 1355–1367 | Cite as

Frequency-Selective Evaluation of Personal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields of Wireless Communications and Broadcast Transmitters

  • Mimoza Ibrani
  • Enver HamitiEmail author
  • Luan Ahma
  • Doruntinë Berisha


We performed a frequency-selective measurement campaign using personal exposure meters with a three-axis E-field probe to assess the electric field strength and power density of wireless communication systems and broadcast transmitters in Kosovo. Mean exposure levels were compared among different microenvironments—outdoor urban, living room, office and bedroom microenvironments—in different geographical locations and different exposure time periods. Furthermore, typical exposure levels in European countries and Kosovo were compared. Measurement post-processing results show that the highest values of the mean power density in an outdoor urban microenvironment were 0.173 mW/m2 for Wi-Fi 5G, 0.137 mW/m2 for GSM 900 uplink, 0.128 mW/m2 for GSM 1800 uplink and 0.112 mW/m2 for Wi-Fi 2G. The maximal recorded value of the total electric field strength was 10.44 V/m. The highest exposure levels per frequency band in the living room were 0.042 mW/m2 for FM, 0.023 mW/m2 for GSM 900 uplink and 0.023 mW/m2 for GSM 900 downlink and Wi-Fi 2G. In office environments, the mean power density for 14 predefined frequency bands in the range 88–5850 MHz was 0.227 mW/m2 in total. The highest total electric field strength for office microenvironments was 5.439 V/m. Residential homes were mainly dominated by the GSM bands (GSM 900 downlink, 54 %; GSM 1800 downlink, 36 %). For the frequency bands FM, TETRA and TV4&5, the exposure was much higher on upper residential floors.


Wireless communications Power density Electric field Personal exposure Wi-Fi GSM 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mimoza Ibrani
    • 1
  • Enver Hamiti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luan Ahma
    • 1
  • Doruntinë Berisha
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of PrishtinaPrishtinaRepublic of Kosovo

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