Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 72, Issue 4, pp 1827–1845 | Cite as

Performance of Layered Steered Space–Time Codes in Wireless Systems

  • Ahmad S. SalimEmail author
  • Salam A. Zummo
  • Samir N. Al-Ghadhban


Layered Steered Space–Time Codes (LSSTC) is a recently proposed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system that combines the benefits of vertical Bell Labs space–time (VBLAST) scheme, space–time block codes (STBC) and beamforming. In this paper, we derive the error performance and capacity of a single-user LSSTC system. The analysis is general enough to any layer ordering and modulation schemes used. In addition, the derived analysis is general for any LSSTC structure in which layers may have different number of antenna arrays and may be assigned power according to any power allocation. Furthermore, we analytically investigate the tradeoff between the main parameters of the LSSTC system, i.e., diversity, multiplexing and beamforming. Our results give recursive expressions for the probability of error for LSSTC which showed nearly perfect match to the simulation results. Results have also revealed the possibility of designing an adaptive system in which it was shown that combining beamforming, STBC, and VBLAST has better performance than VBLAST at high SNR range.


Layered Steered Space–Time Codes LSSTC STBC VBLAST Beamforming Capacity Probability of error Tradeoff 



The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) under grant no. SB070005 and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) through the Science and Technology Unit at KFUPM for funding this work through project number 08-ELE39-4 as part of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad S. Salim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Salam A. Zummo
    • 2
  • Samir N. Al-Ghadhban
    • 2
  1. 1.School of ElectricalComputer and Energy Engineering (ECEE), Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.Electrical Engineering DepartmentKing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM)DhahranSaudi Arabia

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