Advertisement

Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 72, Issue 4, pp 1827–1845 | Cite as

Performance of Layered Steered Space–Time Codes in Wireless Systems

  • Ahmad S. SalimEmail author
  • Salam A. Zummo
  • Samir N. Al-Ghadhban
Article
  • 152 Downloads

Abstract

Layered Steered Space–Time Codes (LSSTC) is a recently proposed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system that combines the benefits of vertical Bell Labs space–time (VBLAST) scheme, space–time block codes (STBC) and beamforming. In this paper, we derive the error performance and capacity of a single-user LSSTC system. The analysis is general enough to any layer ordering and modulation schemes used. In addition, the derived analysis is general for any LSSTC structure in which layers may have different number of antenna arrays and may be assigned power according to any power allocation. Furthermore, we analytically investigate the tradeoff between the main parameters of the LSSTC system, i.e., diversity, multiplexing and beamforming. Our results give recursive expressions for the probability of error for LSSTC which showed nearly perfect match to the simulation results. Results have also revealed the possibility of designing an adaptive system in which it was shown that combining beamforming, STBC, and VBLAST has better performance than VBLAST at high SNR range.

Keywords

Layered Steered Space–Time Codes LSSTC STBC VBLAST Beamforming Capacity Probability of error Tradeoff 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) under grant no. SB070005 and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) through the Science and Technology Unit at KFUPM for funding this work through project number 08-ELE39-4 as part of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan.

References

  1. 1.
    Wolniansky, P. W., Foschini, G. J., Golden, G. D., & Valenzuela, R. A. (1998, October). V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel. In URSI international symposium on signals, systems and electronics, pp. 295–300.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alamouti, S. (1998). A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 16(8), 1451–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tarokh, V., Naguib, A., Seshadri, N., & Calderbank, A. (1999). Combined array processing and space-time coding. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 45(4), 1121–1128.MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mohammad, M., Al-Ghadhban, S., Woerner, B., Tranter, W. (2004) Comparing decoding algorithms for multi-layered space-time block codes. In IEEE SoutheastCon proceedings, pp. 147–152.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chong, J. H., Khatun, S., Noordin, N. K., Ali, B. M., Syed, M. J. (2008) Joint optimal detection of ordering SIC ZF and SIC ZF MAP for V-BLAST/STBC wireless communication systems. In ENICS ’08: Proceedings of the international conference on advances in electronics and micro-electronics, pp. 84–89.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    El-Hajjar, M., Hanzo, L. (2007) Layered steered space-time codes and their capacity. IEE Electronics Letters, 43, 680–682.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shen, C., Zhu, Y., Zhou, S., & Jiang, J. (2004) On the performance of V-BLAST with zero-forcing successive interference cancellation receiver. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2818–2822.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Loyka, S., & Gagnon, F. (2004). On BER analysis of the BLAST without optimal ordering over Rayleigh fading channel. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2, 1473–1477.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shu, F., Lihua, L., Xiaofeng, T., & Ping, Z. (2007) A spatial multiplexing MIMO scheme with beamforming for downlink transmission. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 700–704.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tao, M., & Cheng, R. (2001). Low complexity post-ordered iterative decoding for generalized layered space-time coding systems. IEEE International Conference on Communications, 4, 1137–1141.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Salim, A. (2010). Performance of layered steered space-time codes in wireless systems, Master’s thesis.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Al-Ghadhban, S. (2005). Multi-layered space frequency Time Codes. Ph.D. dissertation. Virginia, USA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Proakis, J. (2000). Digital communications (4th ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Al-Shalan, F. (2000). Performance of quadrature amplitude modulation in Nakagami fading channels with diversity, Ph.D. dissertation. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sandhu, S., & Paulraj, A. (2000). Space-time block codes: A capacity perspective. IEEE Communications Letters, 4(12), 384–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Al-Ghadhban, S., Buehrer, R., & Woerner, B. (2005) Outage capacity comparison of multi-layered STBC and V-BLAST systems. In IEEE 62nd vehicular technology conference, pp. 1:24–27.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zheng, L., & Tse, D. N. C. (2003). Diversity and multiplexing: A fundamental tradeoff in multiple-antenna channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 49(5), 1073–1096.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad S. Salim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Salam A. Zummo
    • 2
  • Samir N. Al-Ghadhban
    • 2
  1. 1.School of ElectricalComputer and Energy Engineering (ECEE), Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.Electrical Engineering DepartmentKing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM)DhahranSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations