IEEE 802.15.4 (for low-rate Wireless Personal Area Networks—WPANs) (IEEE 802.15.4 Standard-2003) and IEEE 802.15.7 (for Short-Range Wireless Optical Communication Using Visible Light) (IEEE 802.15.7 Standard—2011) are two typical standards for WPANs that support Quality-of-Service (QoS) through a Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) mechanism to allocate a specific duration within a superframe structure for a time division multiplexing transmission. The low bandwidth utilization problem may occur in the GTS mechanism when the allocated bandwidth is less than the available bandwidth. However, this problem has not been resolved thoroughly in any of the standard or current research thus far. This paper analyzes GTS performance in QoS-guaranteed transmission and proposes a new GTS allocation scheme named Unbalanced GTS Allocation Scheme (UGAS), which improves the bandwidth resource efficiency. Our scheme tries to solve the bandwidth under-utilization problem by using Network Calculus theory based on the fluid model and greedy algorithm. The UGAS scheme divides the Contention-Free Period into time slots of different durations to support various bandwidth requirements. Time slots are allocated using an approximation QoS model to minimize under-utilization. Compared with the standard GTS allocation scheme, UGAS makes an efficient bandwidth allocation with the QoS-guaranteed model and without breaking the standard protocol. The numerical results show that the average bandwidth utilization using UGAS can be improved by 30 % as compared with the standard scheme.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
IEEE 802.15.4 Standard-2003. (2003). Part 15.4: wireless medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs).
IEEE 802.15.7 Standard for local and metropolitan area networks. (2011). Part 15.7: Short-range wireless optical communication using visible light.
Huang, Y.-K., Pang, A.-C., & Hung, H.-N. (2007). An adaptive GTS allocation scheme for IEEE 802.15.4. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on Volume 19, IEEE TPDS.2007.70769 (pp. 641–651).
Hong, Y.-G., Kim, H.-J., Park, H.-D., & Kim, D.-H. (2009). Adaptive GTS allocation scheme to support QoS and multiple devices in 802.15.4. Advanced Communication Technology 2009. IEEE ICACT 11th (pp. 1697–1702).
Kim, H. S., Song, J.-H., & Lee, S. (2007). Energy efficient traffic scheduling in IEEE802.15.4 for home automation networks. Consumer Electronics 2007, IEEE TCE.2007.381703 (pp. 369–374).
Cheng, L., Bourgeois, A. G., & Zhang, X. (2007). A new GTS allocation scheme for IEEE 802.15.4 networks with improved bandwidth utilization. Communications and Information Technologies 2007, IEEE ISCIT.2007.4392189 (pp. 1143–1148).
Zhang, H., Xin, S., Yu, R., Lin, Z., & Guo, Y. (2009). An adaptive GTS allocation mechanism in IEEE 802.15.4 for various rate application. Communications and Networking in China 2009, IEEE CHINACOM.2009.5339871 (pp. 1–5).
Jurcik, P., Koubaa, A., Alves, M., Tovar, E., & Hanzalek, Z. (2007). A simulation model for the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol: delay/throughput evaluation of the GTS mechanism, modeling, analysis, and simulation of computer and telecommunication systems 2007. IEEE MASCOTS.2007.4 (pp. 109–116).
Koubaa, A., Alves, M., & Tovar, E. (2006). GTS allocation analysis in IEEE 802.15.4 for real-time wireless sensor networks. Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium 2006. IEEE IPDPS.2006.1639415 (pp. 1–8).
Cheng, L., Zhang, X., & Bourgeois, A. G. (2007). GTS allocation scheme revisited. Electronics Letters, EL:20071682 (pp. 1005–1006).
Huang, Y.-K., Pang, A.-C., & Kuo, T.-W. (2006). AGA: adaptive GTS allocation with low latency and fairness considerations for IEEE 802.15.4. Communication 2006, IEEE ICC.2006.2555695 (pp. 3929–3934).
Song, J. K., Ryoo, J.-D., Kim, S. C., Kim, J. W., Kim, H. Y., & Mah, P. S. (2007). A dynamic GTS allocation algorithm in IEEE 802.15.4 for QoS guaranteed real-time applications. Consumer Electronic 2007, IEEE ISCE.2007.4382182 (pp. 192–201).
Koubaa, A., Alves, M., & Tovar E. (2007). i-GAME: an implicit GTS allocation mechanism in IEEE 802.15.4 for time-sensitive wireless sensor networks. Proc. of 18th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems 2006, IEEE ECRTS.2006.31 (pp. 356–361).
Cheng, L., Bourgeois, A. G., Zhang, X. (2007). A performance comparison study of GTS allocation schemes in IEEE 802.15.4. Future Generation Communication and Networking 2007, IEEE FGCN.2007.31 (pp. 356–361).
Leboudec, J.-Y., & Thiran, P. (2001). Network calculus. A Theory of Deterministic Queuing Systems for the Internet, Online Version of the Book Springer Verlag - LNCS 2050.
About this article
Cite this article
Le, N.T., Choi, S. & Jang, Y.M. A New QoS Resource Allocation Scheme Using GTS for WPANs. Wireless Pers Commun 67, 25–45 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-012-0803-3
- Network calculus