Skip to main content

Covert communication based on energy harvesting and cooperative jamming

Abstract

To prevent detection of communication between legitimate users by warden and guarantee a strong security in wireless networks, covert communication technique is recommended. The covert communication is based on hiding the main message in the background of noise which poses challenges such as low transmission rate. On the other hand, the transmit power in the conventional networks is supplied by separate built-in batteries, which are sometimes hard to be recharged or replaced especially in the military applications. In this work, to tackle the low transmission rate, we employ three dimensions beamforming in which we can focus the main beam on the legitimate user and minimize the leakage information at the warden. Moreover, in the proposed network, we intend to employ cooperative jamming (CJ) to increase covert rat in which the jammer is equipped to multiple antennas. Furthermore, to tackle the recharging or replacing batteries in the proposed network, we employ the energy harvesting (EH) technique. The simulation results reveal that the energy harvesting from the jammer’s signal reduce the total power consumption. Moreover, the simulation results show that the optimality gap is about 50% according to energy harvesting technique, and the 3D beamforming increases covert rate about 70% compared to two-dimensional beamforming method.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Wang, D., et al. (2018). From IoT to 5G I-IoT: The next generation IoT-based intelligent algorithms and 5G technologies. IEEE Communications Magazine, 56(10), 114–120.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Lu, X., et al. (2021). Secure wirelessly powered networks at the physical layer: Challenges, countermeasures, and road ahead. Proceedings of the IEEE, 110(1), 193–209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Zhang, Y., et al. (2017). Security optimization of exposure region-based beamforming with a uniform circular array. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 66(6), 2630–2641.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Cao, Y., et al. (2019). Secure transmission via beamforming optimization for NOMA networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 27(1), 193–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Yu, X., et al. (2020). Robust and secure wireless communications via intelligent reflecting surfaces. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 38(11), 2637–2652.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Chen, X., et al. (2020). Securing aerial-ground transmission for NOMA-UAV networks. IEEE Network, 34(6), 171–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Zheng, T.-X., et al. (2021). Wireless covert communications aided by distributed cooperative jamming over slow fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 20(11), 7026–7039.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bendary, A., Abdelaziz, A., & Koksal, C. E. (2021). Achieving positive covert capacity over MIMO AWGN channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Information Theory, 2(1), 149–162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Forouzesh, M., et al. (2020). Covert communication and secure transmission over untrusted relaying networks in the presence of multiple wardens. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 68(6), 3737–3749.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Chen, X., et al. (2021). Multi-antenna covert communication via full-duplex jamming against a warden with uncertain locations. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 20(8), 5467–5480.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Lv, L., et al. (2022). Achieving covert wireless communication with a multi-antenna relay. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 17, 760–773.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Hu, J., et al. (2018). Covert communication achieved by a greedy relay in wireless networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 17(7), 4766–4779.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Ren, Q., & Yao, G. (2021). Enhancing harvested energy utilization for energy harvesting wireless sensor networks by an improved uneven clustering protocol. IEEE Access, 9, 119279–119288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Vignesh, S., et al. (2021). Analysis on energy harvesting techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks. In: 2021 Third international conference on intelligent communication technologies and virtual mobile networks (ICICV). IEEE.

  15. Sharma, P., & Singh, A. K. (2021). Compact ambient RF energy harvesting CPW Fed Antenna for WLAN. In: 2021 5th international conference on trends in electronics and informatics (ICOEI). IEEE.

  16. Zhao, B., & Zhao, X. (2021). Deep reinforcement learning resource allocation in wireless sensor networks with energy harvesting and relay. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 9(3), 2330–2345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mortazavi, S. M., Ashtiani, F., & Mirmohseni, M. (2020). Optimal energy sharing for cooperative relaying in a random access network with energy harvesting nodes. IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, 5(1), 231–242.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Xu, S., & Song, X. (2022). Secure energy efficiency maximization for untrusted wireless-powered full-duplex relay networks under nonlinear energy harvesting. IEEE Systems Journal.

  19. Gouissem, A., et al. (2022). A secure energy efficient scheme for cooperative IoT networks. IEEE Transactions on Communications.

  20. Hu, J., et al. (2019). Covert transmission with a self-sustained relay. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 18(8), 4089–4102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Yoon, I., & Noh, D. K. (2022). Adaptive data collection using UAV with wireless power transfer for wireless rechargeable sensor networks. IEEE Access, 10, 9729–9743.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ruan, T., Chew, Z. J., & Zhu, M. (2017). Energy-aware approaches for energy harvesting powered wireless sensor nodes. IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(7), 2165–2173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Chew, Z. J., Ruan, T., & Zhu, M. (2020). Energy savvy network joining strategies for energy harvesting powered TSCH nodes. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 17(2), 1505–1514.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Shiu, Y.-S., et al. (2011). Physical layer security in wireless networks: A tutorial. IEEE Wireless Communications, 18(2), 66–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Goel, S., & Negi, R. (2008). Guaranteeing secrecy using artificial noise. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 7(6), 2180–2189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Tao, L., et al. (2021). Achieving covert communication in uplink NOMA systems via energy harvesting jammer. IEEE Communications Letters, 25(12), 3785–3789.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Sobers, T. V., Bash, B. A., Guha, S., Towsley, D., & Goeckel, D. (2017). Covert communication in the presence of an uninformed jammer. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 16(9), 6193–6206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Wang, H.-M., Yin, Q., Wang, W., & Xia, X.-G. (2013). Joint null-space beamforming and jamming to secure AF relay systems with individual power constraint. In: 2013 IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech and signal processing (pp. 2911−2914). IEEE.

  29. Grant, M., & Boyd, S. (2014). “CVX: Matlab software for disciplined convex programming, version 2.1,” ed.

  30. Luo, Z.-Q., Ma, W.-K., So, A.M.-C., Ye, Y., & Zhang, S. (2010). emidefinite relaxation of quadratic optimization problems. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 27(3), 20–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Farid Samsami Khodadad.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Azerang, S.F., Samsami Khodadad, F. & Forouzesh, M. Covert communication based on energy harvesting and cooperative jamming. Wireless Netw (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11276-022-03082-x

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11276-022-03082-x

Keywords

  • Energy harvesting
  • Covert communication
  • Cooperative jamming