Wireless Networks

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 1181–1192 | Cite as

Cognitive cross-layer multipath probabilistic routing for cognitive networks

  • Deepti SinghalEmail author
  • Rama Murthy Garimella


Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs) is a set of mobile nodes that can move around arbitrarily, and communicate with others in a multi-hop fashion without any assistance of base stations. With recent advances in Cognitive Radio (CR) technology, it is possible to apply the Dynamic Spectrum Access model in MANETs. This introduces the concept of Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHNs). Applying CR techniques provides better throughput, even in congested spectrum along with better propagation characteristics. CRAHN is a kind of intelligent network that is aware of its surrounding environment, and adapts to the transmission or reception parameters to achieve efficient communication without interfering with primary users. Routing in CR environment is a challenging task as the availability of channel is constrained by the presence of primary user. The problem of routing in CRAHNs targets the creation and maintenance of wireless multi-hop paths among cognitive nodes by deciding both the spectrum to be used and the relay nodes of the path. This paper proposes a cognitive cross-layer multipath probabilistic routing for cognitive radio based networks. The proposed solution uses spectrum holes identified by MAC layer, decides the channel to be used and transmit power level for each hop in the path. The proposed solution is implemented in NS2, and performance of the proposed solution is compared with the existing solution from the literature. The paper also shows that the proposed solution outperforms existing solution in terms of packet delivery ratio, average end-to-end delay and energy consumed per data packet.


Cognitive radio Ad hoc networks Cross layer design Routing protocols 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Institute of Information TechnologyHyderabadIndia

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