The connectivity of wireless networks is commonly analyzed using static geometric graphs. However, with half-duplex radios and due to interference, static or instantaneous connectivity cannot be achieved. It is not necessary, either, since packets take multiple time slots to propagate through the network. For example, if a packet traverses a link in one time slot, it is irrelevant if the next link is available in that time slot also, but it is relevant if the next hop exists in the next time slot. To account for half-duplex constraints and the dynamic changes in the transmitting set of nodes due to MAC scheduling and traffic loads, we introduce a random multi-digraph that captures the evolution of the network connectivity in a dynamic fashion. To obtain concrete results, we focus on Poisson networks, where transmitters form a Poisson point process on the plane at all time instants. We first provide analytical results for the degree distribution of the graph and derive the distributional properties of the end-to-end connection delay using techniques from first-passage percolation and epidemic processes. Next, we prove that under some assumptions, the delay scales linearly with the source–destination distance even in the presence of interference. We also provide simulation results in support of the theoretical results.
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In a real system, the link distance depends on the receiver sensitivity, the path-loss exponent, and fading. However, the presence of noise is sufficient to cause the connectivity radius to be finite
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The partial support of the NSF (grants CNS 1016742 and CCF 1216407) and the DARPA/IPTO IT-MANET program (grant W911NF-07-1-0028) is gratefully acknowledged.
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Ganti, R.K., Haenggi, M. Dynamic connectivity and path formation time in Poisson networks. Wireless Netw 20, 579–589 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11276-013-0620-y
- Ad hoc networks