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Strategies to enhance stress tolerance in lactic acid bacteria across diverse stress conditions

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) hold significant importance in diverse fields, including food technology, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. As basic components of starter cultures, probiotics, immunomodulators, and live vaccines, LAB cells resist a variety of stressors, including temperature fluctuations, osmotic and pH shocks, exposure to oxidants and ultraviolet radiation, substrate deprivation, mechanical damage, and more. To stay alive in these adversities, LAB employ a wide range of stress response strategies supported by various mechanisms, for example rearrangement of metabolism, expression of specialized biomolecules (e.g., chaperones and antioxidants), exopolysaccharide synthesis, and complex repair and regulatory systems. LAB can coordinate responses to various stressors using global regulators. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about stress response strategies used by LAB and consider mechanisms of response to specific stressful factors, supported by illustrative examples. In addition, we discuss technical approaches to increase the stress resistance of LAB, including pre-adaptation, genetic modification of strains, and adjustment of cultivation conditions. A critical analysis of the recent findings in this field augments comprehension of stress tolerance mechanisms in LAB, paving the way for prospective research directions with implications in fundamental and practical areas.

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This research was supported by the National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”.

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The manuscript structure was conceived by AD, SR, OB. The first draft of the manuscript was written by AD. Review and the content edited of draft manuscript were performed by AD, AS, SR, OB. All authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. Visualization was performed by AD, supervision, ideas contribution – by AK, OB. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to A. S. Derunets.

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There is not any third-party financial support for the work in the submitted manuscript. There are not any financial relationships with any entities that could be viewed as relevant to the general area of the submitted manuscript. There are not any sources of revenue with relevance to the submitted work who made payments to us, or to our institution on our behalf, in the 36 months prior to submission. There are not any other interactions with the sponsor of outside of the submitted work. There are not any relevant patents or copy-rights (planned, pending, or issued). There are not any other relationships or affiliations that may be perceived by readers to have influenced, or give the appearance of potentially influencing, what we wrote in the submitted work.

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Derunets, A.S., Selimzyanova, A.I., Rykov, S.V. et al. Strategies to enhance stress tolerance in lactic acid bacteria across diverse stress conditions. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 40, 126 (2024).

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