Plant growth promotion of Miscanthus × giganteus by endophytic bacteria and fungi on non-polluted and polluted soils
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Putative endophytes of Miscanthus × giganteus were isolated, and screened in the laboratory, greenhouse and field for their plant growth promoting properties in this host. Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas savastanoi were the predominant bacteria in leaves whereas other pseudomonads prevailed in roots. Almost all fungal endophytes belonged to the Pezizomycotina and most were isolated from roots; Fusarium oxysporum was most abundant, followed by the genera Periconia, Exophiala, Microdochium and Leptodontidium. All endophytic groups produced phytohormones and some bacteria also produced siderophores, solubilised P and exhibited ACC-deaminase activity in vitro. In subsequent pot experiments with pre-selected endophytes, several isolates including pseudomonads, Variovorax paradoxus, Verticillium leptobactrum, Halenospora sp. and Exophiala sp. enhanced Miscanthus growth in gamma-sterilised soil. These promising Miscanthus-derived isolates were tested either as single or mixed inocula along with a mixed bacterial inoculum originating from poplar. No significant effects of inocula were detected in a pot experiment in non-sterilised soil. On two marginal field sites the mixture of bacterial endophytes from poplar had a consistently negative effect on survival and growth of Miscanthus. Contrarily, mixtures consisting of bacteria or fungi originating from Miscanthus promoted growth of their host, especially on the heavy metals-polluted site. The combination of bacteria and fungi was inferior to the mixtures consisting of bacteria or fungi alone. Our observations indicate extensive potential of mixed bacterial and fungal endophytic inocula to promote establishment and yield of Miscanthus grown on marginal and polluted land and emphasise the necessity to test particular microbial-plant host combinations.
Morphotypes of fungi isolates from Miscanthus × giganteus
KeywordsAntioxidative activity Heavy metals Miscanthus Plant growth promotion Variovorax Halenospora Verticillium leptobactrum
We thank MSc. Dušan Kunc and RNDr. Helena Koblihová for skilful technical assistance.
This research was funded by the Technological Agency of the Czech Republic, Contract No. TA03011184, and by the Czech Academy of Sciences (long-term research development project RVO 67985939).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
No animals or data from human participants were involved in the study.
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