Skip to main content

Copro prevalence and estimated risk of Entamoeba histolytica in Diarrheic patients at Beni-Suef, Egypt

Abstract

Amoebiasis diagnosis is usually based on microscopy that cannot differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from morphologically identical non-pathogenic species. 194 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic &/or dysenteric patients and examined for Entamoeba complex microscopically, E. histolytica/E. dispar coproantigen using ICT and E. histolytica coproantigen using Tech lab E. histolytica II ELISA test. Entamoeba complex trophozoites/cysts, E. histolytica/E. dispar coproantigen and E. histolytica coproantigen were detected in 22.2, 14.4 and 3.6 % of samples, respectively. Microscopy and ICT method had limited sensitivity with poor PPV (9.3 and 7.1 %, respectively) and both slightly agree with ELISA test. The prevalence of E. histolytica was low (3.6 %) in studied individuals and was 14 times lower than non-pathogenic amoebae. E. histolytica detection studied individuals was positively associated with mucoid and bloody stool, which makes them disease predictors. E. histolytica fecal ELISA assay for E. histolytica detection surpassed microscopy and E. histolytica/E. dispar ICT assay. This has highlighted the need for practical non-microscopic detection methods that can differentiate between amoeba infections to avoid unnecessary and possibly harmful therapies and to determine the true prevalence and epidemiology of E. histolytica.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abd-Alla MD, Ravdin JI (2002) Diagnosis of amoebic colitis by antigen capture ELISA in patients presenting with acute diarrhoea in Cairo. Egypt Trop Med Int Health 7(4):365–370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ackers JP (2002) The diagnostic implications of the separation of E. histolytica and E. dispar. J Biosc 27(3):573–578

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Al-Harthi S, Jamjoom M (2007) Diagnosis and differentiation of Entamoeba infection in Makhah Al Mukarramah using microscopy and stool Antigen detection kits. World J Med Sci 2:15–20

    Google Scholar 

  4. Benetton ML, Goncalves AV, Meneghini ME, Silva EF, Carneiro M (2005) Risk factors for infection by the Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar complex: an epidemiological study conducted in outpatient clinics in the city of Manaus, Amazon Region, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99:532–540

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Danciger M, Lopez M (1975) Numbers of Giardia in the faeces of infected children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24(2):237–242

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Diamond LS, Clark CG (1993) Redescription of Entamoeba histolytica Shaudinn 1903 (amended Walker 1911) separating it from Entamoeba dispar (Brumpt 1925). J Eukaryot Microbiol 40:340–344

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. El-Naggar SM, El-Bahy MM, Abd Elaziz J, El-Dardiry MA (2006) Detection of protozoal parasites in the stools of dirrhoeic patients using different techniques. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 36(1):7–22

    Google Scholar 

  8. El-Shazly AM, Awad SE, Sultan DM, Sadek GS, Khalil HH, Morsy TA (2006) Intestinal parasites in Dakahlia governorate, with different techniques in diagnosing protozoa. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 36(3):1023–1034

    Google Scholar 

  9. Garcia LS, Shimizu RY, Novak S, Caroll M, Chan F (2003) Commercial assay for detection of Giardia lamblia and crypto- sporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens by rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatography. J Clin Microbiol 41(1):209–212. doi:10.1128/JCM.41.1.209-212.2003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gatei W, Wamae CN, Mbae C (2006) Cryptosporidiosis: prevalence, genotype analysis, and symptoms associated with infections in children in Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75(1):78–82

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gatti S, Swierczynski G, Robinson F, Anselmi M, Corrales J, Moreira J, Montalvo G, Bruno A, Maserati R, Bisoffi Z, Scaglia M (2002) Amoebic infections due to the Entamoeba histolytica-Entamoeba dispar complex: a study of the incidence in a remote rural area of Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:123–127

    Google Scholar 

  12. Gutiérrez-Cisneros MJ, Cogollos R, López-Vélez R, Martín-Rabadán P, Martínez-Ruiz R, Subirats M, Merino FJ, Fuentes I (2010) Application of real-time PCR for the differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar in cyst-positive fecal samples from 130 immigrants living in Spain. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 104(2):145–149. doi:10.1179/136485910X12607012373759

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Haghighi A, Khorashad AS, Mojarad EN, Kazemi B, Nejad MR, Rasti S (2009) Frequency of enteric protozoan parasites among patients with gastrointestinal complaints in medical centers of Zahedan, Iran. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 103:452–454

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Haque R, Kress K, Wood S, Jackson TFGH, Lyerly D, Wilkins T, Petri WA Jr (1993) Diagnosis of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica infection using a stool ELISA based on monoclonal antibodies to the galactose specific adhesin. J Infect Dis 167:247–249

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Haque RN, Mollah IK, Ali K, Alam A, Eubanks D, Lyerly WA, Petri JR (2000) Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess and intestinal infection with the TechLab Entamoeba histolytica II antigen detection and antibody tests. J Clin Microbiol 38:3235–3239

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Heckendorn F, N’Goran EK, Felger I, Vounatsou P, Yapi A, Oettli A, Marti HP, Dobler M, Traoré M, Lohourignon KL, Lengeler C (2002) Species-specific field testing of Entamoeba spp. in an area of high endemicity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96(5):521–528

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S (1989) Applied logistic regression. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  18. Johnston SP, Ballard MM, Beach MJ, Causer L, Wilkins PP (2003) Evaluation of three commercial assays for detection of giardia and cryptosporidium organisms in fecal speci- mens. J Clin Microbiol 41(2):623–626. doi:10.1128/JCM.41.2.623-626.2003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kebede A, Verweij JJ, Petros B, Polderman AM (2004) Short communication: misleading microscopy in amoebiasis. Trop Med Int Health 9(5):651–652

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Lebbad M, Svard SG (2005) PCR differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar from patients with amoeba infection initially diagnosed by microscopy. Scand J Infect Dis 37:680–685

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Makhlouf SA, Sarwat MA, Mahmoud DM, Mohamad AA (1994) Parasitic infection among children in two orphanages in Cairo. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 24(2):137–145

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Malatyal E, Özçelik S, Çeliksöz A (2011) The investigation of En-tamoeba histolytica: prevalence in some villages of Sivas by ELISA method. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 35:6–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Mora L, Garcia A, De Donato M, Urdaneta H (2008) Epidemiologic and molecular study of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar strains in patients with diarrhea in Cumana, Venezuela. Ivest Clin 49(2):225–237

    Google Scholar 

  24. Norhayati M, Fatmah MS, Yusof S, Edariah AB (2003) Intestinal parasitic infections in man: a review. Med J Malaysia 58:296–305

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Nuran D, Gonul A, Mehmet S, Cahit B, Arzu K, Gurol E (2004) Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in stool specimens by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 99(7):769–772

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Nyarango RM, Aloo PA, Kabiru EW, Nyanchongi BO (2008) The risk of pathogenic intestinal parasite infections in Kisii Municipality, Kenya. BMC Public Health 8:237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Pariya SC, Rao RS (1995) Stool culture as a diagnostic aid in the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in the faecal specimens. Indian J Pathol Micobiol 38:359–363

    Google Scholar 

  28. Pham Duc P, Nguyen-Viet H, Hattendorf J, Zinsstag J, Cam PD, Odermatt P (2011) Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam. Parasit Vectors 4:102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Roy S, Kabir M, Mondal D, Ali IK, Petri WA Jr, Haque R (2005) Real-time-PCR assay for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection. Clin Microbiol 43:2168–2172

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Sharp SE, Suarez CA, Duran Y, Poppiti RJ (2001) Evaluation of the triage micro parasite panel for detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and cryptosporidium parvum in patient stool specimens. J Clin Microbiol 39(1):332–334

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Solaymani-Mohammadi S, Rezaian M, Babaei Z, Rajabpour A, Meamar AR, Pourbabai AA, Petri WA (2006) Comparison of a stool antigen detection kit and PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran. J Clin Microbiol 44(6):2258–2261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Van Eijk AM, Brooks JT, Adcock PM (2010) Diarrhea in children less than two years of age with known HIV status in Kisumu, Kenya. Int J Infect Dis 14(3):e220–e225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Visser LG, Verweij JJ, Van Esbroeck M, Edeling WM, Clerinx J, Polderman AM (2006) Diagnostic methods for differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in carriers: performance and clinical implications in a non-endemic setting. Int J Med Microbiol 296:397–403

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Walsh JA (1986) Problems in recognition and diagnosis of amebiasis: estimation of the global magnitude of morbidity and mortality. Rev Infect Dis 8:228–238

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. World Health Organization (WHO) (1997) News and activities. Washington

  36. Zali MR, Mehr AJ, Rezaian M, Mearmar AR, Vaziri S, Mohraz M (2004) Prevalence of intestinal parasitic pathogens among HIV-positive individuals in Iran. J Infect Dis 57:268–270

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the Scientific Research Developing Unit, Beni Suef University for Granting the study and their support throughout the study.

Conflict of interest

None.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ayman A. El-Badry.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ibrahim, S.S., El-Matarawy, O.M., Ghieth, M.A. et al. Copro prevalence and estimated risk of Entamoeba histolytica in Diarrheic patients at Beni-Suef, Egypt. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 31, 385–390 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-014-1791-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • E. histolytica
  • E. histolytica/E. dispar
  • Entamoeba complex
  • Microscopy
  • Immunocytochromatograghy
  • ELISA