Advertisement

Fungal-bacterial biofilms: their development for novel biotechnological applications

  • Gamini SeneviratneEmail author
  • J. S. Zavahir
  • W. M. M. S. Bandara
  • M. L. M. A. W. Weerasekara
Article

Abstract

The attachment of microbes on biotic or abiotic surfaces to form biofilm structures has a great impact on biodegradation and biosynthesis in nature. Various interactions in such biofilms and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) layer make them considerably different in physiology and action, compared to that of their individual microbes in planktonic (free swimming) mode of growth. Expression of new genes is up-regulated in the biofilm cells, due in part to the cellular interactions, compared with the planktonic cells. Formation of fungal-bacterial biofilms (FBB) by bacterial colonization on biotic fungal surface gives the biofilm enhanced metabolic activities compared to monocultures, and perhaps multi-species bacterial or fungal biofilms on abiotic surfaces. Incorporation of a N2-fixing rhizobial strain to the FBB to form fungal-rhizobial biofilms (FRB) has been shown to improve potential biofilm applications in N-deficient settings and in the production of biofilmed inocula for biofertilizers and biocontrol in plants. Their applications in agricultural and environmental settings, enzyme technology, drug discovery studies and energy research are being investigated. Thus, it has already been shown that the use of the FBB is a promising technology for many applications. This review deals with the different areas in which FBB/FRB have been seen to be applied with successful results as well as the numerous emerging avenues in which they show promising potential.

Keywords

Fungal-bacterial biofilms Fungal-rhizobial biofilms Rhizobial biofilms Biofilms Biotechnology 

References

  1. Artursson V, Finlay RD, Jansson JK (2006) Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria and their potential for stimulating plant growth. Environ Microbiol 8:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Artursson V, Jansson JK (2003) Use of bromodeoxyuridine immunocapture to identify active bacteria associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:6208–6215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baillie GS, Douglas LJ (2000) Matrix polymers of Candida biofilms and their possible role in biofilm resistance to antifungal agents. J Antimicrob Chemother 46:397–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandara WMMS, Seneviratne G, Kulasooriya SA (2006) Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and potentials. J Biosci 31:645–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bashan Y (1998) Inoculants of plant growth-promoting bacteria for use in agriculture. Biotechnol Adv 16:729–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birό B, Köves-Péchy K, Vörös I et al (2000) Interrelations between Azospirillum and Rhizobium nitrogen-fixers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of alfalfa in sterile, AMF-free or normal soil conditions. Appl Soil Ecol 15:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boonchan S, Britz ML, Stanley GA (2000) Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1007–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burmolle M, Webb JS, Rao D et al (2006) Enhanced biofilm formation and increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and bacterial invasion are caused by synergistic interactions in multispecies biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:3916–3923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandra J, Kuhn DM, Mukherjee PK et al (2001) Biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans: development, architecture, and drug resistance. J Bacteriol 183:5385–5394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen CY, Chen SD (2000) Biofilm characteristics in biological denitrification biofilm reactors. Water Sci Technol 41:147–154Google Scholar
  11. Christensen BB, Haagensen JAJ, Heydorn A et al (2002) Metabolic commensalism and competition in a two-species microbial consortium. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:2495–2502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Costerton JW, Philip SS, Greenberg EP (1999) A common cause of persistent infections. Science 284:1318–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davies DG, Chakrabarty AM, Geesey GG (1993) Exopolysaccharide production in biofilms: Substratum activation of alginate gene expression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:1181–1186Google Scholar
  14. De Boer W, Folman LB, Summerbell RC et al (2005) Living in a fungal world: impact of fungi on soil bacterial niche development. FEMS Microbiol Rev 29:795–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Demirci A, Pometto AL, Ho KLG (1997) Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in biofilm reactors. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 19:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dobbins DC, Aelion CM, Pfaender F (1992) Subsurface, terrestrial microbial ecology and biodegradation of organic chemicals: a review. CRC Crit Rev Environ Control 22:67–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Douglas LJ (2002) Candida biofilms and their role in infection. Trends Microbiol 11:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dow JM, Fouhy Y, Lucey J et al (2007) Cyclic di-GMP as an intracellular signal regulating bacterial biofilm formation. In: Kjelleberg S, Givskov M (eds) The biofilm mode of life: mechanisms and adaptations. Horizon Bioscience, Norwich, pp 71–94Google Scholar
  19. Elvers KT, Leening K, Moore CP et al (1998) Bacterial-fungal biofilms in flowing water photo-processing tanks. J Appl Microbiol 84:607–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Elvers KT, Leening K, Moore CP et al (2002) Binary and mixed population biofilms: time-lapse image analysis and disinfection with biocides. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 29:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goel A, Müller MB, Sharma M et al (2003) Biodegradation of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in biofilm reactors. Acta Hydroch Hydrob 31:108–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jayasinghearachchi HS, Seneviratne G (2004a) Can mushrooms fix atmospheric nitrogen? J Biosci 23:293–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jayasinghearachchi HS, Seneviratne G (2004b) A bradyrhizobial-Penicillium spp. biofilm with nitrogenase activity improves N2 fixing symbiosis of soybean. Biol Fertil Soils 40:432–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jayasinghearachchi HS, Seneviratne G (2006a) A mushroom-fungus helps improve endophytic colonization of tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescenc through biofilm formation. Res J Microbiol 1:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jayasinghearachchi HS, Seneviratne G (2006b) Fungal solubilization of rock phosphate is enhanced by forming fungal-rhizobia biofilms. Soil Biol Biochem 38:405–408Google Scholar
  26. Matz C, Bergfeld T, Rice SA et al (2004) Microcolonies, quorum sensing and cytotoxicity determine the survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms exposed to protozoan grazing. Environ Microbiol 6:218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oppermann-Sanio F, Steinbüchel A (2002) Occurrence, functions and biosynthesis of polyamides in microorganisms and biotechnological production. Naturwissenschaften 89:1432–1904Google Scholar
  28. O’Toole G, Kaplan HB, Kolter R (2000) Biofilm formation as microbial development. Ann Rev Microbiol 54:49–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rabaey K, Lissens G, Siciliano SD et al (2003) A microbial fuel cell capable of converting glucose to electricity at high rate and efficiency. Biotechnol Lett 25:1531–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Roberts ME, Stewart PS (2005) Modelling protection from antimicrobial agents in biofilms through the formation of persister cells. Microbiology 51:75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Roesti D, Gaur R, Johri BN et al (2006) Plant growth stage, fertilizer management and bio-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria affect the rhizobacterial community structure in rain-fed wheat fields. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1111–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Seneviratne G (2003) Development of eco-friendly, beneficial microbial biofilms. Curr Sci 85:1395–1396Google Scholar
  33. Seneviratne G, Indrasena IK (2006) Nitrogen fixation in lichens is important for improved rock weathering. J Biosci 31:639–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Seneviratne G, Jayasinghearachchi HS (2003) Mycelial colonization by bradyrhizobia and azorhizobia. J Biosci 28:243–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Seneviratne G, Jayasinghearachchi HS (2005) A rhizobial biofilm with nitrogenase activity alters nutrient availability in a soil. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1975–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Seneviratne G, Tennakoon NS, Weerasekara MLMAW et al (2006) Polyethylene biodegradation by a developed PenicilliumBacillus biofilm. Curr Sci 90:20–21Google Scholar
  37. Service RF (2007) Cellulosic ethanol: biofuel researchers prepare to reap a new harvest. Science 315:1488–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Singh CP, Amberger A (1998) Organic acids and phosphorus solubilization in straw composted with rock phosphate. Biores Technol 63:13–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Soares A, Guieysse B, Mattiasson B (2003) Biodegradation of nonylphenol in a continuous packed-bed bioreactor. Biotech Lett 25:927–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Toljander JF, Artursson V, Paul LR et al (2006) Attachment of different soil bacteria to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal extraradical hyphae is determined by hyphal vitality and fungal species. FEMS Microbiol Lett 254:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Trachoo N (2003) Biofilms and the food industry. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 25:807–815Google Scholar
  42. Tyagi RD, Ghose TK (1982) Studies on immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. analysis of continuous rapid ethanol fermentation in immobilized cell reactor. Biotechnol Bioeng 24:781–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vilain S, Brözel VS (2006) Multivariate approach to comparing whole-cell proteomes of Bacillus cereus indicates a biofilm-specific proteome. J Proteome Res 5:1924–1930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Villena GK, Gutiérrez-Correa M (2003) Aspergillus niger biofilms for cellulases production: some structural and physiological aspects. Rev Peru Biol 10:78–87Google Scholar
  45. Wargo MJ, Hogan DA (2006) Fungal—bacterial interactions: a mixed bag of mingling microbes. Curr Opin Microbiol 9:359–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yan W, Boyd KG, Adams DR et al (2003) Biofilm-specific cross-species induction of antimicrobial compounds in Bacilli. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:3719–3727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zavahir JS, Seneviratne G (2007) Potential of developed microbial biofilms in generating bioactive compounds. Res J Microbiol 2:397–401Google Scholar
  48. Zuo R, Wood TK (2004) Inhibiting mild steel corrosion from sulfate-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria using gramicidins-producing biofilms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:747–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gamini Seneviratne
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. S. Zavahir
    • 1
  • W. M. M. S. Bandara
    • 1
  • M. L. M. A. W. Weerasekara
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Nitrogen Fixation ProjectInstitute of Fundamental StudiesKandySri Lanka

Personalised recommendations