Degradation of endosulfan during substrate preparation and cultivation of Pleurotus pulmonarius

  • D. Hernández-Rodríguez
  • J. E. SánchezEmail author
  • M. G. Nieto
  • F. J. Márquez-Rocha


Endosulfan is an insecticide used on many vegetable crops. In mushroom cultivation, vegetable materials used as a growth substrate may contain residues of endosulfan that may accumulate in the final mushroom biomass. After preparing the substrate, it is subjected to pasteurization and/or composting and then inoculated with the desired fungus. The purpose of this research was to determine the rate and extent of endosulfan reduction from a grass substrate that was either composted or sterilized by autoclaving. In addition, the rate and extent of removal of endosulfan from substrate colonized with Pleurotus pulmonarius was determined. The degradation of 65 mg/kg endosulfan was analyzed on both, the substrate preparation and the culture of P. pulmonarius on the grass Digitaria decumbens. During composting in presence of Ca(OH)2 for 120 h, the concentrations of α and β endosulfan were reduced by 61.4 and 49.5% respectively, significantly higher compared with the control (without Ca(OH)2,) in which the reduction was 38.5%. After sterilization the concentration of α and β endosulfan was reduced by 84.8 and 87.5% respectively. After the colonization of substrate by P. pulmonarius (15 days after spawning) α and β endosulfan were reduced by 96% and at the end of cultivation (35 days after spawning) were reduced by 99%. When carpophores were analyzed, residues of α and β endosulfan were observed between 0.019–0.084 mg/kg. The results showed that α and β endosulfan were partially removed during the preparation of substrate and entirely eliminated during fungal colonization on the substrate.


biodegradation cultivation of Pleurotus endosulfan Pleurotus pulmonarius substrate preparation 


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This project could not have been completed without the financial support of the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT Project 34199B). Also, the support of Dr R. Bello, QFB. Lilia Moreno and Gerardo Hernández in the completion of the study are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Hernández-Rodríguez
    • 1
  • J. E. Sánchez
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. G. Nieto
    • 1
  • F. J. Márquez-Rocha
    • 2
  1. 1.El Colegio de la Frontera SurTapachulaMéxico
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación Científica y Educación Superior de EnsenadaBaja CaliforniaMéxico

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