Community-based natural resource use and management of Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary, Uganda, for livelihood benefits

Abstract

Conservation and sustainable management of wetlands requires participation of local stakeholders, including communities. The Bigodi Wetland is unusual because it is situated in a common property landscape but the local community has been running a successful community-based natural resource management programme (CBNRM) for the wetland for over a decade. Whilst external visitors to the wetland provide ecotourism revenues we sought to quantify community benefits through the use of wetland goods such as firewood, plant fibres, and the like, and costs associated with wild animals damaging farming activities. We interviewed 68 households living close to the wetland and valued their cash and non-cash incomes from farming and collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and water. The majority of households collected a wide variety of plant and fish resources and water from the wetland for household use and livestock. Overall, 53% of total household cash and non-cash income was from collected products, mostly the wetland, 28% from arable agriculture, 12% from livestock and 7% from employment and cash transfers. Female-headed households had lower incomes than male-headed ones, and with a greater reliance on NTFPs. Annual losses due to wildlife damage were estimated at 4.2% of total gross income. Most respondents felt that the wetland was important for their livelihoods, with more than 80% identifying health, education, craft materials and firewood as key benefits. Ninety-five percent felt that the wetland was in a good condition and that most residents observed the agreed CBNRM rules regarding use of the wetland. This study confirms the success of the locally run CBNRM processes underlying the significant role that the wetland plays in local livelihoods.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Abastha K, Hussain SA, Badola R (2007) Resource dependence and attitudes of local people towards conservation of Kabartal Wetland: a case study of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Wetl Ecol Manag 15:287–302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adekola O, Morarder S, de Groot R, Grelot F (2012) Contribution of provisioning services of the Ga-Mampa Wetland, South Africa, to local livelihoods. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag 8:248–264

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Amooti TJ (2010) Personal communication. KAFRED Field Officer, Bigodi

    Google Scholar 

  4. Angelsen A, Jagger P, Babigumira R, Belcher B, Hogarth NJ, Bauch S, Börner J, Smith-Hall C, Wunder S (2014) Environmental income and rural livelihoods: a global comparative analysis. World Dev 64:S12–S28

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Armitage D, Berkes F, Doubleday N (2007) Introduction: moving beyond co-management. In: Armitage D, Berkes F, Doubleday N (eds) Adaptive co-management: collaboration, learning, and multi-level governance. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 1–15

    Google Scholar 

  6. Arntzen J, Setlhogile T, Barnes J (2007) Rural livelihoods, poverty reduction, and food security in southern Africa: Is CBNRM the answer? IUCN—The World Conservation Union

  7. Belcher BM (2003) Comment: What isn’t an NTFP? Int For Rev 5:161–168

    Google Scholar 

  8. Brander LM, Florax RJG, Vermaat JE (2006) The empirics of wetland valuation: a comprehensive summary and a meta-analysis of the literature. Environ Resour Econ 33:223–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Campbell T (2006) Devolved natural resource management as a means of empowering the poor: rhetoric or reality? Trocaire Dev Rev 2006:117–133

    Google Scholar 

  10. Campbell BM, Jeffrey S, Kozanayi W, Luckert M, Mutamba M, Zindi C (2002) Household livelihoods in semi-arid regions: options and constraints. CIFOR, Bogor

    Google Scholar 

  11. Child B (2009) Community conservation in southern Africa: rights-based natural resource management. In: Suich H, Child B, Spenceley A (eds) Evolution and innovation in wildlife conservation: parks and game ranches to transfrontier conservation. Earthscan, London, pp 187–200

    Google Scholar 

  12. De Beer F (2013) Community-based natural resource management: living with Alice in Wonderland? Community Dev J 48:55–570

    Google Scholar 

  13. Dixon AB (2002) The hydrological impacts and sustainability of wetland drainage cultivation in Illubabor, Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev 13:17–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Dovie DB, Shackleton CM, Witkowski ET (2002) Direct-use values of woodland resources consumed and traded in a South African village. Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol 9:269–283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ellis F (2000) Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  16. Fabricius C (2004) The fundamentals of community-based natural resource management. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources and rural development: community-based natural resources management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 3–43

    Google Scholar 

  17. Farrington J, Carney D, Ashley C, Turton C (2004) Sustainable livelihoods in practice: early application of concepts in rural area. In: Jones S, Carswell G (eds) Environment development and rural livelihoods. Earthscan, London, pp 189–202

    Google Scholar 

  18. Gawler M (2002) What are best practices? Lessons in participatory management of inland and coastal wetlands. In: Gawler M (ed) Strategies for wise use of wetlands: best practices in participatory management. Wetlands International/IUCN/WWF, Wageningen

    Google Scholar 

  19. Gosling A (2011) A case study of Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary as a community driven Community-Based Natural Resource Management Initiative: maintaining livelihoods and wetland health. Rhodes University, Grahamstown

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hartter JN (2007) Landscape change around Kibale National Park, Uganda: impacts on land cover, land use, and livelihoods. PhD Thesis, University of Florida

  21. Hartter JN, Ryan SJ (2010) Top-down or bottom-up? Decentralisation, natural resource management, and usufruct rights in the forests and wetlands of western Uganda. Land Use Policy 27:815–826

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Kakuru W, Turyahabwe N, Mugisha J (2013) Total economic value of wetlands products and services in Uganda. Sci World J. doi:10.1155/2013/192656

    Google Scholar 

  23. Kamwenge District Local Government (2004) District state of environment report for Kamwenge. National Environment Management Authority, Uganda

  24. Khumalo KE, Yung LA (2015) Women, human–wildlife conflict, and CBNRM: hidden impacts and vulnerabilities in Kwandu Conservancy, Namibia. Conserv Soc 13:232–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Lamsal P, Pant KP, Kumar L, Atreya K (2015) Sustainable livelihoods through conservation of wetland resources: a case of economic benefits from Ghodaghodi Lake, western Nepal. Ecol Soc. doi:10.5751/ES-07172-200110

    Google Scholar 

  26. Lepp A (2004) Tourism in a rural Ugandan village: impacts, local meaning and implications for development. PhD Thesis, University of Florida

  27. Lepp A (2007) Residents’ attitudes towards tourism in Bigodi Village, Uganda. Tour Manag 28:876–885

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Little PD, Smith K, Cellarius BA, Layne Coppock D, Barrett C (2001) Avoiding disaster: diversification and risk management among East African herders. Dev Change 32:401–434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Maclean IM, Boar RR, Lugo C (2011) A review of the relative merits of conserving, using or draining Papyrus swamps. Environ Manag 47:218–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Magome H, Fabricius C (2004) Reconciling biodiversity conservation with rural development: the Holy Grail of CBNRM. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources & rural development: community-based natural resource management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 93–109

    Google Scholar 

  31. Mmopelwa G, Blignaut J, Hassan R (2009) Direct use values of selected vegetation resources in the Okavango Delta Wetland. S Afr J Econ Manag Sci 12:242–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Moyini Y, Muramira E, Emerton L, Shechambo F (2002) The costs of environmental degradation and loss to Uganda’s economy with particular reference to poverty eradication. IUCN—The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi

    Google Scholar 

  33. Ngaka W (2007) Illiteracy, participation and feminisation of poverty: a critique of Uganda’s plan for modernisation of agriculture from a literacy perspective. Int J Interdiscip Soc Sci 1:131–136

    Google Scholar 

  34. Nott C, Jacobsohn M (2004) Key issues in Namibia’s communal conservancy movement. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources and rural development: community-based natural resource management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 194–199

    Google Scholar 

  35. Pailler S, Naidoo R, Burgess ND, Freeman OE, Fisher B (2015) Impacts of community-based natural resource management on wealth, food security and child health in Tanzania. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133252

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Ramsar Convention Secretariat (2011) Wise use of wetlands: a conceptual framework for the wise use of wetlands. Ramsar handbooks for the wise use of wetlands, 3rd edn, vol 1. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland

  37. Riehl B, Zerriffi M, Naidoo R (2015) Effects of community-based natural resource management on household welfare in Namibia. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125531

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. Rozemeijer N (2009) CBNRM in Botswana. In: Suich H, Child B, Spenceley A (eds) Evolution and innovation in wildlife conservation: parks and game ranches to transfrontier conservation. Earthscan, London, pp 243–256

    Google Scholar 

  39. Schuijt K (2002) Land and water use of wetlands in Africa: economic values of African wetlands. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Uxenburg

    Google Scholar 

  40. Scoones I (2009) Livelihoods perspectives and rural development. J Peasant Stud 36:171–196

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Scoones I, Melnyk M, Pretty J (1992) The hidden harvest: wild foods and agricultural systems—a literature review and annotated bibliography. IIED, London

    Google Scholar 

  42. Shackleton SE, Shackleton CM (2004) Are everyday resources valuable enough for CBNRM support? Evidence from South Africa. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources and rural development: community based natural resource management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 135–146

    Google Scholar 

  43. Shackleton CM, Shackleton SE, Cousins B (2001) The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: the contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting. Dev South Afr 18:581–604

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Shackleton CM, Willis TV, Brown K, Polunin N (2010) Reflecting on the next generation of models for community-based natural resources management. Environ Conserv 37:1–4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Shackleton CM, Delang C, Shackleton SE, Shanley P (2011) Non-timber forest products: concept and definition. In: Shackleton SE, Shackleton CM, Shanley P (eds) Non-timber forest products in the global context. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 3–21

    Google Scholar 

  46. Silvius MJ, Oneka M, Verhagen A (2000) Wetlands: lifeline for people at the edge. Phys Chem Earth B 25:645–652

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Stuip MAM, Baker CJ, Oosterberg W (2002) Socio-economics of wetlands. Wetlands International and RIZA, The Netherlands

  48. Suich H (2013) The effectiveness of economic incentives for sustaining community based natural resource management. Land Use Policy 31:441–449

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Suich H (2014) Evaluating the household level outcomes of community based natural resource management: the Tchuma Tchato Project and Kwandu Conservancy. Ecol Soc 18(4):25

    Google Scholar 

  50. Taylor R (2009) Community based natural resource management in Zimbabwe: the experience of CAMPFIRE. Biodivers Conserv 18:2563–2583

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Terer T, Muasya AM, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Ndiritu GG, Triest L (2012) Integrating local ecological knowledge and management practice of an isolated semi-arid papyrus swamp (Loboi, Kenya) into a wider conservation framework. J Environ Manag 93:71–84

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Turner S (2004) Community-based natural resource management and rural livelihoods. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources & rural development: community-based natural resource management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 44–65

    Google Scholar 

  53. Turyahabwe N, Kakura W, Tweheyo W, Tumusiime DM (2013) Contribution of wetland resources to household food security in Uganda. Agric Food Secur 2:5. doi:10.1186/2048-7010-2-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. van der Jagt C, Gujadhur T, van Bussel F (2000) Community benefits through community-based natural resource management in Botswana. IUCN—World Conservation Union, CBNRM Support Programme, Botswana

    Google Scholar 

  55. Williams WD (2002) Community participation in conserving and managing inland waters. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 12:315–326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. World Resources Institute and Wetlands Management Department, Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda (2009) Mapping a better future: how spatial analysis can benefit wetlands and reduce poverty in Uganda. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank John Tinka of KAFRED and the Community Committee for their support of and contributions to this research, as well as the villagers of Bigodi who made this work possible.

Funding

This work was supported by a Rated Researchers Grant to CS from the South African National Research Foundation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Charlie M. Shackleton.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gosling, A., Shackleton, C.M. & Gambiza, J. Community-based natural resource use and management of Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary, Uganda, for livelihood benefits. Wetlands Ecol Manage 25, 717–730 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-017-9546-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Benefits
  • Costs
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Land-based
  • Local management
  • Non-timber forest products