Community-based natural resource use and management of Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary, Uganda, for livelihood benefits

Original Paper

Abstract

Conservation and sustainable management of wetlands requires participation of local stakeholders, including communities. The Bigodi Wetland is unusual because it is situated in a common property landscape but the local community has been running a successful community-based natural resource management programme (CBNRM) for the wetland for over a decade. Whilst external visitors to the wetland provide ecotourism revenues we sought to quantify community benefits through the use of wetland goods such as firewood, plant fibres, and the like, and costs associated with wild animals damaging farming activities. We interviewed 68 households living close to the wetland and valued their cash and non-cash incomes from farming and collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and water. The majority of households collected a wide variety of plant and fish resources and water from the wetland for household use and livestock. Overall, 53% of total household cash and non-cash income was from collected products, mostly the wetland, 28% from arable agriculture, 12% from livestock and 7% from employment and cash transfers. Female-headed households had lower incomes than male-headed ones, and with a greater reliance on NTFPs. Annual losses due to wildlife damage were estimated at 4.2% of total gross income. Most respondents felt that the wetland was important for their livelihoods, with more than 80% identifying health, education, craft materials and firewood as key benefits. Ninety-five percent felt that the wetland was in a good condition and that most residents observed the agreed CBNRM rules regarding use of the wetland. This study confirms the success of the locally run CBNRM processes underlying the significant role that the wetland plays in local livelihoods.

Keywords

Benefits Costs Gender Income Land-based Local management Non-timber forest products 

References

  1. Abastha K, Hussain SA, Badola R (2007) Resource dependence and attitudes of local people towards conservation of Kabartal Wetland: a case study of the Indo-Gangetic plains. Wetl Ecol Manag 15:287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adekola O, Morarder S, de Groot R, Grelot F (2012) Contribution of provisioning services of the Ga-Mampa Wetland, South Africa, to local livelihoods. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag 8:248–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amooti TJ (2010) Personal communication. KAFRED Field Officer, BigodiGoogle Scholar
  4. Angelsen A, Jagger P, Babigumira R, Belcher B, Hogarth NJ, Bauch S, Börner J, Smith-Hall C, Wunder S (2014) Environmental income and rural livelihoods: a global comparative analysis. World Dev 64:S12–S28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armitage D, Berkes F, Doubleday N (2007) Introduction: moving beyond co-management. In: Armitage D, Berkes F, Doubleday N (eds) Adaptive co-management: collaboration, learning, and multi-level governance. UBC Press, Vancouver, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  6. Arntzen J, Setlhogile T, Barnes J (2007) Rural livelihoods, poverty reduction, and food security in southern Africa: Is CBNRM the answer? IUCN—The World Conservation UnionGoogle Scholar
  7. Belcher BM (2003) Comment: What isn’t an NTFP? Int For Rev 5:161–168Google Scholar
  8. Brander LM, Florax RJG, Vermaat JE (2006) The empirics of wetland valuation: a comprehensive summary and a meta-analysis of the literature. Environ Resour Econ 33:223–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell T (2006) Devolved natural resource management as a means of empowering the poor: rhetoric or reality? Trocaire Dev Rev 2006:117–133Google Scholar
  10. Campbell BM, Jeffrey S, Kozanayi W, Luckert M, Mutamba M, Zindi C (2002) Household livelihoods in semi-arid regions: options and constraints. CIFOR, BogorGoogle Scholar
  11. Child B (2009) Community conservation in southern Africa: rights-based natural resource management. In: Suich H, Child B, Spenceley A (eds) Evolution and innovation in wildlife conservation: parks and game ranches to transfrontier conservation. Earthscan, London, pp 187–200Google Scholar
  12. De Beer F (2013) Community-based natural resource management: living with Alice in Wonderland? Community Dev J 48:55–570Google Scholar
  13. Dixon AB (2002) The hydrological impacts and sustainability of wetland drainage cultivation in Illubabor, Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev 13:17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dovie DB, Shackleton CM, Witkowski ET (2002) Direct-use values of woodland resources consumed and traded in a South African village. Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol 9:269–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellis F (2000) Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Fabricius C (2004) The fundamentals of community-based natural resource management. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources and rural development: community-based natural resources management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 3–43Google Scholar
  17. Farrington J, Carney D, Ashley C, Turton C (2004) Sustainable livelihoods in practice: early application of concepts in rural area. In: Jones S, Carswell G (eds) Environment development and rural livelihoods. Earthscan, London, pp 189–202Google Scholar
  18. Gawler M (2002) What are best practices? Lessons in participatory management of inland and coastal wetlands. In: Gawler M (ed) Strategies for wise use of wetlands: best practices in participatory management. Wetlands International/IUCN/WWF, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  19. Gosling A (2011) A case study of Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary as a community driven Community-Based Natural Resource Management Initiative: maintaining livelihoods and wetland health. Rhodes University, GrahamstownGoogle Scholar
  20. Hartter JN (2007) Landscape change around Kibale National Park, Uganda: impacts on land cover, land use, and livelihoods. PhD Thesis, University of FloridaGoogle Scholar
  21. Hartter JN, Ryan SJ (2010) Top-down or bottom-up? Decentralisation, natural resource management, and usufruct rights in the forests and wetlands of western Uganda. Land Use Policy 27:815–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kakuru W, Turyahabwe N, Mugisha J (2013) Total economic value of wetlands products and services in Uganda. Sci World J. doi:10.1155/2013/192656 Google Scholar
  23. Kamwenge District Local Government (2004) District state of environment report for Kamwenge. National Environment Management Authority, UgandaGoogle Scholar
  24. Khumalo KE, Yung LA (2015) Women, human–wildlife conflict, and CBNRM: hidden impacts and vulnerabilities in Kwandu Conservancy, Namibia. Conserv Soc 13:232–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lamsal P, Pant KP, Kumar L, Atreya K (2015) Sustainable livelihoods through conservation of wetland resources: a case of economic benefits from Ghodaghodi Lake, western Nepal. Ecol Soc. doi:10.5751/ES-07172-200110 Google Scholar
  26. Lepp A (2004) Tourism in a rural Ugandan village: impacts, local meaning and implications for development. PhD Thesis, University of FloridaGoogle Scholar
  27. Lepp A (2007) Residents’ attitudes towards tourism in Bigodi Village, Uganda. Tour Manag 28:876–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Little PD, Smith K, Cellarius BA, Layne Coppock D, Barrett C (2001) Avoiding disaster: diversification and risk management among East African herders. Dev Change 32:401–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maclean IM, Boar RR, Lugo C (2011) A review of the relative merits of conserving, using or draining Papyrus swamps. Environ Manag 47:218–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Magome H, Fabricius C (2004) Reconciling biodiversity conservation with rural development: the Holy Grail of CBNRM. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources & rural development: community-based natural resource management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 93–109Google Scholar
  31. Mmopelwa G, Blignaut J, Hassan R (2009) Direct use values of selected vegetation resources in the Okavango Delta Wetland. S Afr J Econ Manag Sci 12:242–255Google Scholar
  32. Moyini Y, Muramira E, Emerton L, Shechambo F (2002) The costs of environmental degradation and loss to Uganda’s economy with particular reference to poverty eradication. IUCN—The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  33. Ngaka W (2007) Illiteracy, participation and feminisation of poverty: a critique of Uganda’s plan for modernisation of agriculture from a literacy perspective. Int J Interdiscip Soc Sci 1:131–136Google Scholar
  34. Nott C, Jacobsohn M (2004) Key issues in Namibia’s communal conservancy movement. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources and rural development: community-based natural resource management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 194–199Google Scholar
  35. Pailler S, Naidoo R, Burgess ND, Freeman OE, Fisher B (2015) Impacts of community-based natural resource management on wealth, food security and child health in Tanzania. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133252 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Ramsar Convention Secretariat (2011) Wise use of wetlands: a conceptual framework for the wise use of wetlands. Ramsar handbooks for the wise use of wetlands, 3rd edn, vol 1. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, GlandGoogle Scholar
  37. Riehl B, Zerriffi M, Naidoo R (2015) Effects of community-based natural resource management on household welfare in Namibia. PLoS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125531 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Rozemeijer N (2009) CBNRM in Botswana. In: Suich H, Child B, Spenceley A (eds) Evolution and innovation in wildlife conservation: parks and game ranches to transfrontier conservation. Earthscan, London, pp 243–256Google Scholar
  39. Schuijt K (2002) Land and water use of wetlands in Africa: economic values of African wetlands. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, UxenburgGoogle Scholar
  40. Scoones I (2009) Livelihoods perspectives and rural development. J Peasant Stud 36:171–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Scoones I, Melnyk M, Pretty J (1992) The hidden harvest: wild foods and agricultural systems—a literature review and annotated bibliography. IIED, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Shackleton SE, Shackleton CM (2004) Are everyday resources valuable enough for CBNRM support? Evidence from South Africa. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources and rural development: community based natural resource management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 135–146Google Scholar
  43. Shackleton CM, Shackleton SE, Cousins B (2001) The role of land-based strategies in rural livelihoods: the contribution of arable production, animal husbandry and natural resource harvesting. Dev South Afr 18:581–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shackleton CM, Willis TV, Brown K, Polunin N (2010) Reflecting on the next generation of models for community-based natural resources management. Environ Conserv 37:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shackleton CM, Delang C, Shackleton SE, Shanley P (2011) Non-timber forest products: concept and definition. In: Shackleton SE, Shackleton CM, Shanley P (eds) Non-timber forest products in the global context. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Silvius MJ, Oneka M, Verhagen A (2000) Wetlands: lifeline for people at the edge. Phys Chem Earth B 25:645–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stuip MAM, Baker CJ, Oosterberg W (2002) Socio-economics of wetlands. Wetlands International and RIZA, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  48. Suich H (2013) The effectiveness of economic incentives for sustaining community based natural resource management. Land Use Policy 31:441–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Suich H (2014) Evaluating the household level outcomes of community based natural resource management: the Tchuma Tchato Project and Kwandu Conservancy. Ecol Soc 18(4):25Google Scholar
  50. Taylor R (2009) Community based natural resource management in Zimbabwe: the experience of CAMPFIRE. Biodivers Conserv 18:2563–2583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Terer T, Muasya AM, Dahdouh-Guebas F, Ndiritu GG, Triest L (2012) Integrating local ecological knowledge and management practice of an isolated semi-arid papyrus swamp (Loboi, Kenya) into a wider conservation framework. J Environ Manag 93:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Turner S (2004) Community-based natural resource management and rural livelihoods. In: Fabricius C, Koch E, Magome H, Turner S (eds) Rights, resources & rural development: community-based natural resource management in southern Africa. Earthscan, London, pp 44–65Google Scholar
  53. Turyahabwe N, Kakura W, Tweheyo W, Tumusiime DM (2013) Contribution of wetland resources to household food security in Uganda. Agric Food Secur 2:5. doi:10.1186/2048-7010-2-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. van der Jagt C, Gujadhur T, van Bussel F (2000) Community benefits through community-based natural resource management in Botswana. IUCN—World Conservation Union, CBNRM Support Programme, BotswanaGoogle Scholar
  55. Williams WD (2002) Community participation in conserving and managing inland waters. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 12:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. World Resources Institute and Wetlands Management Department, Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda (2009) Mapping a better future: how spatial analysis can benefit wetlands and reduce poverty in Uganda. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations