Wetlands Ecology and Management

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 379–399 | Cite as

Ecology, disturbance and restoration of coastal saltmarsh in Australia: a review

Article

Abstract

It is clear that saltmarshes are a unique and important component of the coastal biosphere of Australia. Their contribution ranges from stabilisation of fine sediments and providing an excellent protective buffer between land and sea, to their diverse blend of terrestrial and marine fauna. Further, saltmarsh plants are highly specialised and adapted to fill a harsh niche allowing them to act in roles that other vegetation types cannot. Saltmarsh habitats are recognised for their importance to migratory waders under the Ramsar convention, but it is becoming increasingly evident that they are also important to a variety of commercially valuable fish and native mammal species. Activities that are detrimental to saltmarshes continue and need to be addressed in order to conserve remaining saltmarsh areas. In general, urbanisation of the catchment has lead to filling of saltmarshes, tidal restriction, use by recreational vehicles, grazing, trampling and increased sedimentation and nutrient runnoff allowing colonisation and invasion of mangroves. These disturbances have a number of ecological consequences ranging from weed infestation to complete changes in the species composition and ecology. Reversing the disturbance is not always simple and can require extensive groundwork to be successful. Rehabilitation of existing saltmarsh areas has been a successful means to enhance this habitat. In general, it requires relatively little effort to remove weeds and fence off areas to regenerate naturally. Saltmarsh areas have been shown to respond well to this type of manipulation. Restoration and creation require substantial effort and planning to ensure a successful outcome. However, given the right environmental combinations of elevation, tide and salinity, saltmarsh will establish and grow. To speed the process transplantation of saltmarsh plants can be considered either from donor sites or plants propagated in green houses.

Keywords

Conservation Creation Disturbance Rehabilitation Restoration Saltmarsh 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adam, P. 1981aAustralian saltmarshesWetlands (Australia)1810Google Scholar
  2. Adam, P. 1981bSaltmarsh plants of NSWWetlands (Australia)11119Google Scholar
  3. Adam, P. 1990Saltmarsh EcologyCambridge University PressCambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Adam P. 1993. Saltmarsh Vegetation Study. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993–1995. 2. CSIRO Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Adam, P. 1997Absence of creeks and pans in temperate Australian salt marshesMangrove Salt Marsh1239241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Adam, P., Hutchings, P. 1987The saltmarshes and mangroves of Jervis BayWetlands (Australia)65864Google Scholar
  7. Adam, P., Wilson, N.C., Huntley, B. 1988The phytosociology of coastal saltmarsh vegetation in New South WalesWetlands (Australia)73557Google Scholar
  8. Adams, J.B., Bate, G.C. 1994The effect of salinity and inundation on the estuarine macrophyte Sarcocornia perennis (Mill.) AJ. Scott. Aquat. Bot.47341348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allison, S.K. 1995Recovery from small-scale anthropogenic disturbances by northern California salt marsh plant assemblagesEcol. Appl.5693702Google Scholar
  10. Baxter, G.S., Fairweather, P.G. 1998Does available foraging arealocation or colony character control the size of multispecies egret colonies?Wildlife Res.252332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berents P.B. 1993. Wetlands and Benthos. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993–1995. 2. CSIRO Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Bertness, M.D. 1985Fiddler crab regulation of Spartina alterniflora production in a New England salt marshEcology6610421055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Black, J.M. 1986Flora of South AustraliaSouth Australian Government PrinterAdelaideGoogle Scholar
  14. Boon, P.I., Bird, F.L., Bunn, S.E. 1997Diet of the intertidal Callianassid shrimps Biffarius arenosus, and Trypea australiensis (DecapodaThaladdinidea) in Western Port (Southern Australia), determined with multiple stable isotope analysesMarine Freshw. Res.48503511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boon, P.I., Cain, S. 1988Nitrogen cycling in salt marsh and mangrove sediments in Western PortVictoriaAustr. J. Marine Freshw. Res.3960723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bowen, R., Stephens, N., Donnelly, P. 1995SEPP-14 wetland protection and the role of mitigationWetlands (Australia)14612Google Scholar
  17. Bradshaw, A. 1996Underlying principles of restorationCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brady, V., Cardinale, B., Gathman, J., Burton, T. 2002Does facilitation of faunal recruitment benefit ecosystem restoration? An experimental study of invertebrate assemblages in wetland mesocosmsRestor. Ecol.10617626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Breitfuss, M.J., Connolly, R.M., Dale, P.E.R. 2003Mangrove distribution and mosquito control: transport of Avicennia marina propagules by mosquito-control runnels in southeast Queensland saltmarshesEstuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.56573579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bridgewater, P.B. 1982Phytosociology of coastal salt-marshes in the mediterranean climatic region of AustraliaPhytocoenologia10257296Google Scholar
  21. Bridgewater P.B., Rosser C. and de Corona A. 1981. The saltmarsh plants of southern Australia, Botany Department, Monash University Report.Google Scholar
  22. Bucher, D., Saenger, P. 1991An inventory of Australian estuaries and enclosed marine waters: an overview of resultsAustr. Geogr. Stud.29370381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Buckney, R.T. 1987

    Three decades of habitat change: Kooragang Island New South Wales

    Saunders, A.Arnold, G.W.Burbidge, A.A.Hopkins, A.J.M. eds. Nature Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native VegetationSurrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd in association with CSIRO and CALMChipping Norton
    Google Scholar
  24. Burchett, M.D., Allen, C., Pulkownik, A., MacFarlane, G. 1998Rehabilitation of saline wetlandOlympic 2000 siteSydney (Australia). II: Saltmarsh transplantation trials and applicationMarine Pollut. Bull.37526534Google Scholar
  25. Burchett M.D. and Pulkownik A. 1995. Wetlands study. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993–1995. 1. CSIRO PublishingGoogle Scholar
  26. Callaway, J.C., Zedler, J.B. 1998Interactions between a salt marsh native perennial (Salicornia virginica) and an exotic annual (Polypogon monspeliensis) under varied salinity and hydroperiodWetlands Ecol. Manag.5179194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Callaway, J.C., Zedler, J.B., Ross, D.L. 1997Using tidal salt marsh mesocosm to aid wetland restorationRestor. Ecol.5135146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carne R.J. 1991. Landform vegetation relationships in the Minamurra estuary NSW. Department of Geography and Oceanography, NSW University Report.Google Scholar
  29. Chapman, H.F., Dale, P.E.R., Kay, B.H. 1998A method for assessing the effects of runneling on salt marsh grapsid crab populationsJ. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc.146168Google Scholar
  30. Chapman, H.F., M, H.J., Jennings, C., Kay, B.H., Ritchie, S.A. 1999Population structures and dispersal of the saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax in QueenslandAustraliaMed. Vetinary Entomol.13423430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chapman V.J. 1960. Saltmarshes and Saltdeserts of the World. London.Google Scholar
  32. Clarke, C., Miller, P. 1983

    Habitat evaluation – invertebrates

    Moss, J. eds. An Investigation of Natural Areas of Kooragang Island, Hunter RiverDepartment of Environment and PlanningSydney
    Google Scholar
  33. Clarke, C.J., van Gessel, F.W.C. 1983

    Habitat evaluation – birds

    Moss, J. eds. An Investigation of Natural Areas of Kooragang Island, Hunter RiverDepartment of Environment and PlanningSydney
    Google Scholar
  34. Clarke, L.D., Hannon, N.J. 1967The mangrove swamp and salt marsh communities of the Sydney district I Vegetation, soils and climateJ. Ecol.55753771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clarke, L.D., Hannon, N.J. 1969The mangrove swamp and salt marsh communities of the Sydney district II The holocoenotic complex with particular reference to physiographyJ. Ecol.57213234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Clarke, L.D., Hannon, N.J. 1970The mangrove swamp and salt marsh communities of the Sydney district III Plant growth in relation to salinity and waterloggingJ. Ecol.56351369Google Scholar
  37. Clarke, L.D., Hannon, N.J. 1971The mangrove swamp and salt marsh comminities of the Sydney district IV The significance of species interactionJ. Ecol.59535553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Clarke, P., Benson, D. 1988The natural vegetation of Homebush Bay – two hundred years of changesWetlands (Australia)8315Google Scholar
  39. Clarke, P.J. 1983Nitrogen pools in a mangrove-saltmarsh systemWetlands38593Google Scholar
  40. Clarke, P.J. 1986Nitrogen pools and soil characteristics of a temperate estuarine wetland in eastern AustraliaAquat. Bot.23275290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Clarke, P.J. 1993Mangrovesaltmarsh and peripheral vegetation of Jervis BayCunnighamia3231253Google Scholar
  42. Clarke, P.J., Allaway, W.G. 1993The regeneration niche of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina): effects of salinity, light and sediment factors on establishmentgrowth and survival in the fieldOecologia93548556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Clarke, P.J., Jacoby, C.A. 1994Biomass and above-ground productivity of salt marsh plants in south-eastern AustraliaAustralian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research4515211528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Clarke, P.J., Myerscough, P.J. 1993The intertidal distribution of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) in southeastern Australia - The effects of physical conditions, interspecific competition, and predation on propagule establishment and survivalAustr. J. Ecol.18307315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Coleman, P.S.J. 1998Changes in a mangrove/samphire community, North Arm Creek, South AustraliaTrans. Roy. Soc. S Austr.122173178Google Scholar
  46. Collinge, S.K. 1996Ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation: Implications for landscape architecture and planningLandscape Urban Plan365977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Congdon, R.A., McComb, A.J. 1980Productivity and nutrient content of Juncus krausii in an estuarine marsh in south-western AutraliaAustr. J. Ecol.5221234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Congdon, R.A., McComb, A.J. 1981The vegetation of the Blackwood River estuary, South-west AustraliaJ. Ecol.69116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Connolly, R.M. 1999Saltmarsh as habitat for fish and nektonic crustaceans: challenges in sampling designs and methodsAustr. J. Ecol.24422430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Connolly, R.M. 2005Modification of saltmarsh for mosquito control in Australia alters habitat use by nektonWetlands Ecol. Manag.13149161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Connolly R.M. and Bass D.A. 1996. Do fish actually use salt marsh flats? Proceedings of the Coastal Management Conference, Glenelg, South Australia April, 1996, pp. 273–276.Google Scholar
  52. Connolly, R.M., Dalton, A., Bass, D.A. 1997Fish use of a inundated saltmarsh flat in a temperate Australian estuaryAustr. J. Ecol.22222226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Cook, R.E. 1985

    Growth and development in clonal organisms

    Jackson, J.B.C.Buss, L.W.Cook, R.E. eds. Population Biology and Evolution of Clonal OrganismsYale University PressNew Haven
    Google Scholar
  54. Cribb, A.B., Cribb, J.W. 1985Plant Life of the Great Barrier Reef and Adjacent ShoresUniversity of Queensland PressAustraliaGoogle Scholar
  55. Crinall, S.M., Hindell, J.S. 2004Assessing the use of saltmarsh flats by fish in a temperate Australian embaymentEstuaries27728739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. CSIRO 1994. Epifauna of mangroves and saltmarshes. Perth, CSIRO Division of Fisheries: Final report 619–653.Google Scholar
  57. Dale, P.E.R., Dale, P.T., Hulsman, K., Kay, B.H. 1993Runnelling to control saltmarsh mosquitoes – long-tern efficacy and environmental impactsJ. Amer. Mosquito Contr. Assoc.9174181Google Scholar
  58. Davis, J.A., Froend, R. 1999Loss and degradation of wetlands in southwestern Australia: underlying causes, consequences and solutionsWetlands Ecol. Manag.71323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Davis, T.L.O. 1988Temporal changes in the fish fauna entering a tidal swamp system in tropical AustraliaEnviron. Biol. Fish21161172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Day J.W., Hall C.A.S., Kemp M.W. and Yanez-Arancibia A. 1989. Estuarine Ecology. John Wiley And Sons.Google Scholar
  61. de la Cruz, A.A., Hackney, C.T. 1977Energy valueelemental composition and productivity of below ground biomass of Juncus tidal marshEcology5811651170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Dick T.M. 1999. Decomposition of saltmarsh and mangrove vegetation on and around Kooragang Island, Master of Science Thesis, University of Newcastle.Google Scholar
  63. Donovan, L.A., Gallagher, J.L. 1984Anaerobic substrate tolerance in Sporobolus virginicus (L.) KunthAmer. J. Bot.7114241431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Donovan, L.A., Gallagher, J.L. 1985Morphological responses of a marsh grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L) Kunth to saline and anaerobic stressesWetlands5113Google Scholar
  65. Eckstein D. 2004. Leichardt Council Federal Park Wetland Project. Final report for Encironmental Trust, Restoration and Rehabilitation Trust Grant 1995/RR/G0021.Google Scholar
  66. Fenech H. 1994. An assessment of the estuarine wetland status within the Sutherland Shire. Bachelor of Environmental Science Thesis, Faculty of Science, University of Woolongong.Google Scholar
  67. Finlayson, C.M., Rea, N. 1999Reasons for the loss and degradation of Australian wetlandsWetlands Ecol. Manag.7111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gallagher, J.L. 1979Growth and elemental compositional responses of Sporobolus virginicus (L) Kunth to substrate salinity and nitrogenAmer. Midland Nat.1026875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Genders A. 1997. Creek 3 Benthic Invertebrate Study, University of Newcastle Report.Google Scholar
  70. Genders A.J. 1996. Interaction of marsh and pasture species on Kooragang Island, Graduate Diploma of Science Thesis, University of Newcastle.Google Scholar
  71. Gibbs P.J. 1986. The fauna and fishery of Wallis Lake. Wallis Lake: Present and Future. Australian Marine Science Association, Sydney Report.Google Scholar
  72. Gislason, G.M., Russell, R.C. 1997Oviposition sites of the saltmarsh mosquitoAedes vigilax (Skuse) (DipteraCulicidae), at Homebush Bay, Sydney NSW – A preliminary investigationAustr. J. Entomol.3697100Google Scholar
  73. Gosper, D.G. 1981Survey of birds on floodplain-estuarine wetlands on the Hunter and Richmond Rivers in northern NSWCorella5118Google Scholar
  74. Harrison, S., Bruna, E. 1999Habitat fragmentation and large-scale conservation: what do we know for sure?Ecography22225232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Havens, K.J., Varnell, L.M., Watts, B.D. 2002Maturation of a constructed tidal marsh relative to two natural reference tidal marshes over 12 yearsEcol. Eng.18305315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hedge, P., Kriwoken, L.K. 2000Evidence for effects of Spartina anglica invasion on benthic macrofauna in Little Swanport estuary, TasmaniaAustral Ecol.25150159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Huiskes, A.H.L., Koutstaal, B.P., Herman, P.M.J., Beeftink, W.G., Markusse, M.M., de Munck, W. 1995Seed dispersal of halophytes in tidal salt marshesJ. Ecol.83559567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hutchings, P.A., Pickard, J., Recker, H.F., Weate, P.B. 1977A survey of the mangroves at Brooklyn, Hawkesbuly River, NSWOperculum5105112Google Scholar
  79. Hutchings, P.A., Recher, H.F. 1974The fauna of Careel Bay with comments on the ecology of mangroves and seagrass communitiesAustr. Zool.1899127Google Scholar
  80. Irving L. 2001. An investigation of the structure and primary food sources of the intertidal macrofauna of Coombabah Lake, southeast Queensland. Honours Thesis, School of Environmental and Applied Science. Gold Coast, Griffith University.Google Scholar
  81. Jacobs, S.W.L. 1999

    Terrestrial wetlands and waterplants

    Orchard, A.E.Thompson, H.S. eds. Flora of AustraliaCSIRO PublishingCollingwood, VIC
    Google Scholar
  82. Johnson, D.H. 2001Habitat fragmentation effects on birds in grasslands and wetlands: a critique of our knowledgeGreat Plains Res.11211231Google Scholar
  83. Kaplan, W., Valiela, I. 1979Denitrification in a salt marsh ecosystemLimnol. Oceanogr.24726734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kay S. 2004. Experimental re-establishment of Sarcocornia quinqueflora in Haslams Creek flats. Proceedings of the Wetland an Education Training Program: Recent Techniques in Protection, Creation and Rehabilitation of Coastal Saltmarshes, Homebush 3–4 June 2004.Google Scholar
  85. Kelleway J. in press. Ecological impacts of recreational vehicle use on saltmarshes of the Georges River, Sydney. Wetlands, Australia.Google Scholar
  86. King, R.J. 1981

    Mangroves and saltmarsh plants

    Clayton, M.N.King, R.J. eds. Marine Botany: An Australasian PerspectiveLongman CheshireMelbourne
    Google Scholar
  87. Kirkpatrick J.B. and Glasby J. 1981. Salt marshes in Tasmania: distribution, community composition and conservation. Tasmania, Department of Geography, University of Tasmania Report.Google Scholar
  88. Kratochvil, M., Hannon, N.J., Clarke, L.D. 1972Mangrove swamp and saltmarsh communities in southeastern AustraliaProc. Linnaen Soc. NSW97262274Google Scholar
  89. Krause A. 1995. Factors determining the spatial distribution of vegetation in a Tomago saltmarsh, University of Newcastle, Bachelor of Environmental Science Thesis.Google Scholar
  90. Laegdsgaard P. 2001. Conservation of coastal saltmarshes and management implications. Proceedings of the 11th Coastal Management Conference, Newcastle, November 2001.Google Scholar
  91. Laegdsgaard, P. 2002Recovery of small denuded patches of the dominant NSW coastal saltmarsh species (Sporobolus virginicusSarcocornia quinqueflora) and implications for restoration using donor sitesEcol. Manag. Restor.3202206Google Scholar
  92. Laegdsgaard P. in prep. The Lack of Burrowing Macrofauna in Coastal Saltmarshes of New South Wales, Australia.Google Scholar
  93. Laegdsgaard, P., Monamy, V., Saintilan, N. 2004Investigating the presence of threatened insectivourous bats on coastal NSW saltmarsh habitatWetlands (Australia)222941Google Scholar
  94. Latchford J. 1994. Samphire flats of the Peel-Harvey Estuary – A community asset, Peel Preservation Group Inc. Report.Google Scholar
  95. Lefeuvre, J., Bouchard, V., Feunteun, E., Grare, S., Laffaille, P., Radureau, A. 2000European salt marshes diversity and functioning: The case study of the Mont Saint-Michel bay, FranceWetlands Ecol. Manag.8147161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lincoln-Smith M., White G.A. and Hawes P.M.H. 1994. Fish tudy. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993–1995. 1. CSIRO PublishingGoogle Scholar
  97. Maddock, M. 1983Hunter Valley wetland birds raise conservation issuesWetlands (Australia)35870Google Scholar
  98. Mahall, B.E., Park, R.B. 1976The ecotone between Spartina foliosa Trin. and Salicornia virginica L. in saltmarshes of northern San Francisco Bay. I. Biomass and productionJ. Ecol.64421433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Marsh J.A. 1982. Aspects of the ecology of three saltmarshes of the Derwent region, and an investigation into the role of the burrowing crab Helograpsus haswellianus (Whitelegge 1889) Honours Thesis, Department of Zoology. Hobart, University of Tasmania.Google Scholar
  100. Mazluff, J.M., Ewing, K. 2001Restoration of fragmented landscapes for the conservation of birds: A general framework and specific recommendations for urbanizing landscapesRestor. Ecol.9280292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mazumder D., Saintilan N. and Williams R.J. 2005. Temporal variations in fish catch using pop nets in mangrove and saltmarsh flats at Towra Point, NSW, Australia. J. Wetland Ecol. Manag. 13(4): 457–467.Google Scholar
  102. Milford H.B. and Simons N. 2002. The Salinity Soil Data Care. Supplement 1 to the 3rd edition of the soil data entry handbook, Department of Land and Water Conservation Report.Google Scholar
  103. Mitchell, M.L., Adam, P. 1989aThe decline of saltmarsh in Botany BayWetlands (Australia)85560Google Scholar
  104. Mitchell, M.L., Adam, P. 1989bThe relationship between mangrove and saltmarsh communities in the Sydney regionWetlands (Australia)83746Google Scholar
  105. Morrisey, D. 1995

    Saltmarshes

    Underwood, A.J.Chapman, M.G. eds. Coastal Marine Ecology of Temperate AustraliaUNSW PressSydney
    Google Scholar
  106. Morton, R.M. 1993

    Fluctuations in wetland extent in southern Moreton Bay

    Greenwood, J.G.Hall, N.J. eds. Future of Marine Science in Moreton BaySchool of Marine Science, University of QueenslandBrisbane
    Google Scholar
  107. Morton, R.M., Beumer, J.P., Pollock, B.R. 1988Fishes of a subtropical Australian saltmarsh and their predation upon mosquitoesEnviron. Biol. Fish.21185194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Morton, R.M., Pollock, B.R., Beumer, J.P. 1987The occurrence and diet of fishes in a tidal inlet to a saltmarsh in southern Moreton Bay, QueenslandAustr. J. Ecol.12217237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. NAWC 2003. Noxios weed list for Australian States and Territories, National Australian Weeds Commitee.Google Scholar
  110. Nelson P.J. 1994. Aspects of the ecology of vascular halophytes which determine their distribution in a Kooragang Island saltmarsh community, Honours Thesis, University of NewcastleGoogle Scholar
  111. Nelson P.J. 1996. The ecology of saltmarsh restoration on Kooragang Island. Newcastle, University of Newcastle, Department of Biological Sciences Report.Google Scholar
  112. Outhred, R.K., Buckney, R.T. 1983The vegetation of Kooragang IslandNew South WalesWetlands (Australia)35870Google Scholar
  113. Pen L.J. 1983. Peripheral vegetation of the Swan and Canning estuaries 1981. Department of Conservation and Environment Western Australia Report.Google Scholar
  114. Pidgeon, I.M. 1940The ecology of the central coastal area of New South Wales II Types of primary successionProc. Linnaean Soc.65221249Google Scholar
  115. Redfield, A.C. 1972Development of a New England salt marshEcol. Monogr.42201237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Richardson, A.M.M., Mulcahy, M.E. 1996The distribution of Talitrid amphipods (Crustacea) on a salt marsh in southern Tasmaniain relation to vegetation and substratumEstuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.43801817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Richardson, A.M.M., Swain, R., McCoull, C.J. 2001Salt spray limits the inland penetration of a coastally restricted invertebrate: a field experiment using landhoppers (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Talitridae)Funct. Ecol.15435442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Richardson, A.M.M., Swain, R., Wong, V. 1997The crustacean and molluscan fauna of Tasmanian saltmarshesProc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania1312130Google Scholar
  119. Ritchie, S.A. 1994Spatial stability of Aedes vigilax (DipteraCulicidae) eggshells in southeastern Queensland salt marshesJ. Med. Entomol.31920922PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ritchie, S.A., Jennings, C.D. 1994Dispersion and sampling of Aedes vigilax eggshells in southeastern Queensland, AustraliaJ. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc.10181185Google Scholar
  121. Roach, A.C. 1998Effects of predation on the size structure of the gastropod Salinator solida (Martens) populations at Towra PointNSW, AustraliaMarine Freshw. Res.49779784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Roach, A.C., Hunt, A.M., Ward, C.J.A. 1989Factors related to the intra- and interspecific zonation of two pulmonate gastropods Salinator solida (Lamarck and Ophicardelus ornatus(Ferussac)J. Malacol. Soc. Austr.105967Google Scholar
  123. Roach, A.C., Lim, R.P. 2000Variation in the population dynamics of the intertidal pulmonate gastropod Salinator solida Martens (Gastropoda: Amphibolidae) at Towra Point, NSW, AustraliaWetlands Ecol. Manag.85369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Roman, C.T., Niering, W.A., Warren, R.S. 1984Salt marsh vegetation change in response to tidal restrictionEnviron. Manag.8141150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Roy, P.S. 1984New South Wales Estuaries: Their origin and Evolution. Coastal Geomorphology in AustraliaAcademic PressAustraliaGoogle Scholar
  126. Ryan, P.A., Do, K.A., Kay, B.H. 2000Definition of Ross River virus vectors at Maroochy ShireAustraliaJ. Med. Entomol.37146152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Saenger P., Specht M.M., Specht R.L. and Chapman V.J. 1977. Mangal and coastal saltmarsh communities in Australasia. In: Chapman V.J. (ed.), Ecosystems of the World: Territories, Wet Coastal Ecosystems. Elsevier Scientific PublishingGoogle Scholar
  128. Saintilan, N. 2003

    The less obvious impacts of human settlement

    Straw, P. eds. Status and Management of Migratory Shorebirds in SydneySydney Olympic Park AuthoritySydney
    Google Scholar
  129. Saintilan, N., Hashimoto, T.R. 1999aMangrove-saltmarsh dynamics on a bay-head delta in the Hawkesbury River estuary, New South Wales, AustraliaHydrobiologia41395102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Saintilan, N., Williams, R.J. 1999bMangrove transgression into saltmarsh environments in south-east AustraliaGlobal Ecol. Biogeogr.8117124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Saintilan N. and Wilton K. 1999. Changes in the distribution of mangroves and saltmarshes in Jervis Bay, Australian Catholic University, Report prepared for the Shoalhaven Catchment Management Committee.Google Scholar
  132. Sainty G. and Roberts D. 2004. Saltmarsh restoration and construction. Proceedings of the Wetland an Education Training Program: Recent Techniques in Protection, Creation and Rehabilitation of Coastal SaltmarshesHomebush 3–4 June 2004.Google Scholar
  133. Seliskar, D.M. 1998Natural and tissue culture-generated variation in the salt marsh grass Sporobolus virginicus: Potential selections for marsh creation and restorationHortscience33622625Google Scholar
  134. Simpson, J. 1995

    Wading birds of Anderson Inlet and the work of the Victorian Wader Study Group

    Rash, J.E.Williamson, J.S.Taylor, J.S. eds. Proceedings of the Australasian Conference on Spartina ControlVictorian GovernmentMelbourne
    Google Scholar
  135. Smith P. 1991. The biology and management of waders (suborder Charadrii) in NSW, National Parks and Wildlife Service Report.Google Scholar
  136. Smith-White, A.R. 1981Physiological differentiation in a salt-marsh grassWetlands (Australia)12021Google Scholar
  137. Specht, R.L. 1981

    Biogeography of halophytic angiosperms (salt-marshes, mangrove and sea-grass)

    Keast, A. eds. Ecological Biogeography of AustraliaDr JunkThe Hague
    Google Scholar
  138. Spellerberg, I. 1998Ecological effects of roads and traffic: A literature reviewGlobal Ecol. Biogeogr. Letts7317333Google Scholar
  139. Straw P. 1996. Waterbirds. Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993–1995. 2. CSIRO PublishingGoogle Scholar
  140. Streever, W.J. 1997Trends in Australian wetland rehabilitationWetlands Ecol. Manag.5518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Streever, W.J., Genders, A.J. 1997Effect of improved tidal flushing and competitive interactions at the boundary between salt marsh and pastureEstuaries20807818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Streever, W.J., Wiseman, L., Turner, P., Nelson, P. 1996Short term changes in flushing of tidal creeks following culvert removalWetlands (Australia)152230Google Scholar
  143. Talley, T.S., Levin, L.A. 1999Macrofaunal succession and community structure in Salicornia marshes of southern CaliforniaEstuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.49713731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Taylor, D.I., Allanson, B.R. 1995Organic carbon fluxes between a high marsh and estuary, and the inapplicability of the outwelling hypothesisMarine Ecol. Progr. Ser.120263270Google Scholar
  145. Thomas, B.E., Connolly, R.M. 2001Fish use of subtropical saltmarshes in QueenslandAustralia: relationships with vegetation, water depth and distance onto the marshMarine Ecol. Progr. Ser.209275288Google Scholar
  146. Tscharntke, T., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Kruess, A., Thies, C. 2002Characteristics of insect populations of habitat fragments: a mini reviewEcol. Res.17229239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Turner, P.A., Streever, W.J. 1997The relationship between the density of Aedes vigilax (DipteraCulicidae) eggshells and environmental factors on Kooragang IslandNew South Wales, AustraliaJ. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc.13361367Google Scholar
  148. Turner, P.A., Streever, W.J. 1999Changes in productivity of the saltmarsh mosquitoAedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae), and vegetation cover following culvert removalAustr. J. Ecol.24240248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Underwood, A.J., Chapman, M.G. 1993Seashores A Beachcomber's guideNSW University PressAustraliaGoogle Scholar
  150. Valk, A.G., Attiwill, P.M. 1983Above- and below-ground litter decomposition in an Australian salt marshAustr. J. Ecol.18441447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Vernberg, F.J. 1993Salt-marsh processes: a reviewEnviron. Toxicol. Chem.1221672195Google Scholar
  152. Warren J. 1989. The status and production of mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems in the Parramatta River Basin. Sydney, University of Technology, Masters Thesis.Google Scholar
  153. Web, K.L. 1966NaCl effects on growth and transpiration in Salicornia bigelovii salt marsh halophytePl. Soil24261268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Webb, C.E., Russell, R.C. 1999Towards management of mosquitoes at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia. I. Seasonal activity and relative abundance of adults of Aedes vigilax, Culex sitiens, and other salt-marsh species, 1993–94 through 1997–98J. Amer. Mosq. Contr. Assoc.15242249Google Scholar
  155. Weinstein, M.P., Balletto, J.H. 1999Does the common reedPhragmites australisaffect essential fish habitat?Estuaries22793802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. West R.J. 1993. Estuarine fisheries resources of two south eastern Australian rivers, University of New South Wales, PhD Thesis.Google Scholar
  157. Wilson, J.B., King, W.M., Sykes, M.T., Partridge, T.R. 1996Vegetation zonation as related to the salt tolerance of species of brackish riverbanksCan. J. Bot.7410791085Google Scholar
  158. Wilson N.C. 1984. The plant communities of saltmarshes of the Sydney region. Honours Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney.Google Scholar
  159. Wilton K.M. 2002. Coastal wetland habitat dynamics in selected New South Wales Estuaries. PhD thesis, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Australian Catholic University.Google Scholar
  160. Windham, L. 1995Effects of phragmites australis invasion on above-ground biomass and soil properties in brackish tidal marsh of the Mullica River New JerseyRutgers UniversityNew Brunswick, New Jersey Masters Thesis.Google Scholar
  161. Zann, L.P. 1997Our SeaOur FutureMajor findings of the State of the Marine Environment Report for AustraliaDepartment of Environment, Sport and TerritoriesCanberraGoogle Scholar
  162. Zedler J.B. and Adam P. 2002. Saltmarshes. In: Perrow M.R. and Davy A.J. (eds), Handbook of Ecological Restoration. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  163. Zedler, J.B., Nelson, P., Adam, P. 1995Plant community organization in New South Wales saltmarshes: Species mosaics and potential causesWetlands (Australia)14118Google Scholar
  164. Zedler, J.B., Paling, E., McComb, A. 1990Differential responses to salinity help explain the replacement of native Juncus krausii by Typha orientalis in Western Australia salt marshesAustr. J. Ecol.155772CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of InfrastructurePlanning and Natural ResourcesDangarAustralia

Personalised recommendations