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Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil: a Systematic Literature Review of Contaminant Behavior, Risk Assessment, and Remediation Options

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Abstract

Activities in shooting ranges can cause chemical disturbances in the soil due to the constituents of ammunition, such as lead (Pb). Ecological and human risks are expected in these sites due to the high toxicity, abundance, and persistency of Pb in the soil. Effects in growth, reproducibility, and water absorption are examples of how Pb can affect terrestrial plants. Ingestion or inhalation of Pb-contaminated soil particles can cause respiratory problems, infertility or convulsion, for example, depending on the level of exposure. Children are the most susceptible to adverse health effects, such as behavioral and neurological disturbances. A systematic literature review (SLR) study was conducted to evaluate and discuss the main subjects involving soil contamination by Pb in outdoor shooting ranges. Based on the 31 papers selected, relevant aspects of the risk assessment methodologies and remediation options were presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time this topic has been approached through a SLR. 23 documents were used as support literature. Overall, studies that perform speciation analyses of Pb in soil are more indicated to assess ecological and human risk since the contaminant bioavailability is better evaluated. However, only laboratory studies were conducted in the papers analyzed in this SLR to investigate the remediation options for shooting range contamination. There is a lack of pilot-scale data in the literature.

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Source: adapted from Sorvari et al., 2006

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Materials Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Data Availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of Dr. Marilda M. G. R. Vianna (in memoriam), who encouraged and supported this work.

Funding

This study received financial support from CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel).

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Conceptualization: GPM, LCRS, and RMAV; methodology: GPM and RMAV; formal analysis and investigation: GPM; writing—original draft preparation: GPM; writing—review and editing: LCRS and RMAV; funding acquisition: CAON; supervision: OC-F and CAON.

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Correspondence to Gabriela Paupitz Mendes.

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Appendix

Appendix

The following list of references contains the articles from the systematic literature review process:

Ahmad M, Soo Lee S, Yang JE, et al. (2012) Effects of soil dilution and amendments (mussel shell, cow bone, and biochar) on Pb availability and phytotoxicity in military shooting range soil. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 79:225–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.01.003.

Bannon DI, Drexler JW, Fent GM, et al. (2009) Evaluation of small arms range soils for metal contamination and lead bioavailability. Environ Sci Technol 43:9071–9076. https://doi.org/10.1021/es901834h.

Bennett JR, Kaufman CA, Koch I, et al. (2007) Ecological risk assessment of lead contamination at rifle and pistol ranges using techniques to account for site characteristics. Sci Total Environ 374:91–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.040

Booth L, Palasz F, Darling C, et al. (2003) The effect of lead-contaminated soil from Canadian prairie skeet ranges on the neutral red retention assay and fecundity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22:2446–2453. https://doi.org/10.1897/02-582.

Dinake P, Kelebemang R, Sehube N, et al. (2018) Quantitative assessment of environmental risk from lead pollution of shooting range soils. Chem. Speciat. Bioavailab. 30:76–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/09542299.2018.1507689.

Dinake P, Kelebemang R, Sehube N, et al. (2020) Dynamic risk assessment of lead pollution of shooting range soil by applying the delayed geochemical hazard model–a case study in Botswana. Soil Sediment Contam 29:503–515. https://doi.org/10.1080/15320383.2020.1747812

Duggan J, Dhawan A (2007) Speciation and vertical distribution of lead and lead shot in soil at a recreational firing range. Soil Sediment Contam 16:351–369. https://doi.org/10.1080/15320380701404425

Evangelou MWH, Hockmann K, Pokharel R, et al. (2012) Accumulation of Sb, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd by various plants species on two different relocated military shooting range soils. J. Environ. Manage. 108:102–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.04.044.

Guo J, Hua B, Li N, Yang J (2016) Stabilizing lead bullets in shooting range soil by phosphate-based surface coating. AIMS Environ Sci 3:474–487. https://doi.org/10.3934/environsci.2016.3.474

Islam MN, Nguyen XP, Jung HY, Park JH (2016) Chemical speciation and quantitative evaluation of heavy metal pollution hazards in two army shooting range backstop soils. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 96:179–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1689-z.

Islam MN, Park JH (2017) Immobilization and reduction of bioavailability of lead in shooting range soil through hydrothermal treatment. J Environ Manage 191:172–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.01.017

Johnsen IV, Aaneby J (2019) Soil intake in ruminants grazing on heavy-metal contaminated shooting ranges. Sci Total Environ 687:41–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.086

Kaufman CA, Joseph R. Bennett JR, Iris Koch A, Reimer KJ (2007) Lead bioaccessibility in food web intermediates and the influence on ecological risk characterization. Environ Sci Technol 41:5902–5907. https://doi.org/10.1021/es062443u.

Klitzke S, Lang F, Kaupenjohann M (2008) Increasing pH releases colloidal lead in a highly contaminated forest soil. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 59:265–273. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00997.x.

Luo W, Verweij RA, van Gestel CAM (2014) Assessment of the bioavailability and toxicity of lead polluted soils using a combination of chemical approaches and bioassays with the collembolan Folsomia candida. J Hazard Mater 280:524–530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.08.044

Luo W, Verweij RA, Van Gestel CAM (2014) Determining the bioavailability and toxicity of lead contamination to earthworms requires using a combination of physicochemical and biological methods. Environ. Pollut. 185:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.10.017.

Mathieu Laporte‐Saumure RM& GM (2011) Characterization and metal availability of copper, lead, antimony and zinc contamination at four Canadian small arms firing ranges. 767–781. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2010.512298.

Perroy RL, Belby CS, Mertens CJ (2014) Mapping and modeling three dimensional lead contamination in the wetland sediments of a former trap-shooting range. Sci Total Environ 487:72–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.102

Pescatore A, Grassi C, Rizzo AM, et al. (2022) Effects of biochar on berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum, L.) growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) accumulation. Chemosphere 287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131986.

Radziemska M, Bęś A, Gusiatin ZM, et al. (2019) The combined effect of phytostabilization and different amendments on remediation of soils from post-military areas. Sci. Total Environ. 688:37–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.190.

Reigosa-Alonso A, Lorenzo Dacunha R, Arenas-Lago D, et al. (2021) Soils from abandoned shooting range facilities as contamination source of potentially toxic elements: distribution among soil geochemical fractions. Environ. Geochem. Health 43:4283–4297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00900-7.

Rodríguez-Seijo A, Cachada A, Gavina A, et al. (2017) Lead and PAHs contamination of an old shooting range: a case study with a holistic approach. Sci Total Environ 575:367–377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.018

Rodríguez-Seijo A, Lago-Vila M, Arenas-Lago D, et al. (2016) Pollution and risk assessment of potential hazardous elements in a shooting range soils (NW Spain). Spanish J Soil Sci 6:107–122. https://doi.org/10.3232/SJSS.2016.V6.N2.03

Salminen J, Korkama T, Strömmer R (2002) Interaction modification among decomposers impairs ecosystem processes in lead-polluted soil. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21:2301–2309. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620211107.

Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N (2014) Ecotoxicity of chemically stabilised metal(loid)s in shooting range soils. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 100:201–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.11.003

Sanderson P, Naidu R, Bolan N (2017) Application of a biodegradable chelate to enhance subsequent chemical stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils. J. Soils Sediments 17:1696–1705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-016-1608-x.

Sorvari J (2007) Environmental risks at Finnish shooting ranges—a case study. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 13:1111–1146. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807030701506124

Sorvari J, Antikainen R, Pyy O (2006) Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges-the scope of the problem and management options. Sci Total Environ 366:21–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.12.019

Urrutia-Goyes R, Argyraki A, Ornelas-Soto N (2017) Assessing lead, nickel, and zinc pollution in topsoil from a historic shooting range rehabilitated into a public urban park. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070698.

Walraven N, Bakker M, Van Os BJH, et al. (2015) Factors controlling the oral bioaccessibility of anthropogenic Pb in polluted soils. Sci. Total Environ. 506–507:149–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.118.

Yan K, Dong Z, Wijayawardena MAA, et al. (2019) The source of lead determines the relationship between soil properties and lead bioaccessibility. Environ. Pollut. 246:53–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.11.104.

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Mendes, G.P., Soares, L.C., Viegas, R.M.A. et al. Lead (Pb) in Shooting Range Soil: a Systematic Literature Review of Contaminant Behavior, Risk Assessment, and Remediation Options. Water Air Soil Pollut 235, 1 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-023-06783-x

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