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Carbon–Silica Composites from Sago Waste for the Removal of Chromium, Lead, and Copper from Aqueous Solution: Kinetic and Equilibrium Isotherm Studies

Abstract

Utilizing agricultural wastes into value-added products of a low-cost adsorbent has become of interest in recent years. In this study, sago-silica composite with a ratio of 80:20 (w/w%) was prepared via chemical grafting of abundantly available sago waste and rice husk. The physicochemical properties of the composites were characterized, and their efficiencies as adsorbents on the removal of chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) in aqueous media were studied as a function of pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, and contact time. Results showed that the sago-silica composite has a more extensive surface area of 227.7 m2/g compared to SAC (167.3 m2/g). The adsorption of Cr and Cu gave excellent monolayer and heterolayer adsorption on sago-silica composite represented by Langmuir and Freundlich’s isotherm based on coefficient regression, R2 > 0.9. Pseudo-second-order kinetics model showed best fitted with excellent adsorption capacity qe of Cr, Pb, and Cu adsorption on sago-silica composites, which demonstrated the occurrence of chemisorption process between the composite and metal ions. The composite from carbon–silica is one of the cost-effective natural sorbents which demonstrate excellent removal of heavy metal from the aqueous environment.

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Data Availability

The data, generated from the experiment, supporting the findings of this study are available within the article and its supplementary information files.

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Funding

This study received funding from the University of Malaysia Sarawak from Tun Openg Sago Research Chair (F07/TOC/1742/2018).

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Contributions

YR prepared the adsorbent and demonstrated the removal of Cr, Pb, and Cu in aqueous media. ZN and RW analyzed and interpreted the data. ZN and RW equally contributed in writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Zainab Ngaini or Rafeah Wahi.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Ngaini, Z., Rajan, Y. & Wahi, R. Carbon–Silica Composites from Sago Waste for the Removal of Chromium, Lead, and Copper from Aqueous Solution: Kinetic and Equilibrium Isotherm Studies. Water Air Soil Pollut 232, 441 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-021-05393-9

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Keywords

  • Sago hampas
  • Rice husk
  • Activated carbon
  • Silica grafting
  • Heavy metals
  • Adsorption