Knowledge about trace elements such as mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and bismuth (Bi) in mire surface water is limited. We studied 105 surface water samples collected from 50 mires in the Changbai Mountains (CBM), northeastern China, investigated the characteristics of these five elements, and assessed the quality of the mire surface water. Hg and Sb in all investigated mires exceeded the guideline values (level V) for surface water set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China by 92% and 2%, respectively. Inputs of Hg and Sb into surface water were predominantly derived from atmospheric wet deposition and following surface runoff at a regional scale. Concentrations of Sb were influenced by the acidity of mire water and were positively linked with As. Concentrations of As, Se, and Bi were within their allowable ranges (level I), and were not related to any investigated factors at a regional scale. At a local scale, As was influenced by redox conditions; Se was predominantly input from surface runoff; and concentrations of Bi decreased along with strong water table fluctuations and surface runoff. The water quality index (WQI) and the metal index (MI) indicated that 56% of mire surface water was poor for drinking, and 40% was moderately affected for agriculture and general landscape purposes. Early detection of potential risks from these trace elements to organisms is important, and attention should be predominantly paid to Hg and Sb in surface water of mires connected to principal local rivers and streams in these regions.
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The authors would like to thank Jia Liu, Qiannan Yang, Xing’an Wang, Ming Wang, Zhiwei Xu, Chuantao Song, Sipeng Zhang, Hanxiang Liu, Fangyuan Chen, Zheng Han, Chenxi Duan, Xiaokang Zhou, Xuanqi Zhao, Yiwen Cao, and Cong Xu for their help in the fieldwork, and Xinhua Zhou, Jia Liu, Qiannan Yang, Jingjing Sun, Yangyang Xia, Jie Wang, and Yufang Liu for their assistance during the laboratory chemical analysis.
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41471165) and the Science and Technology Department of Jilin Province (No. 20180101002JC).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Xu, G., Wang, Z., Zhao, H. et al. Characteristics and Assessment of Trace Elements (Hg, As, Sb, Se, and Bi) in Mire Surface Water from the Changbai Mountains, Northeastern China. Water Air Soil Pollut 232, 246 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-021-05173-5
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