The presence of emerging contaminants (EC), such as antibiotics in water bodies, is considered an environmental issue. In this work, the iron sources FeC2O4•2H2O (FOD), complexes of iron/oxalate (Fe2+/Ox), and FeSO4 as reference were evaluated as catalysts on the degradation of pyrazinamide (10 mg L−1) antibiotic by the photo-Fenton process. Different parameters were studied such as initial pH value (3, 4.5, and 6), Fe2+/H2O2 molar ratio (1:20, 1:30, and 1:40), and Fe2+/Ox with different molar ratios (1:3, 1:6, and 1:9). The best performance was achieved with a 1:20 Fe2+/H2O2 molar ratio using FeSO4 and FOD showing similar results as FeSO4 catalyst at pH 3 and 4.5. The degradation rate at pH 6 was enhanced using Fe2+/Ox (1:3) compared to FeSO4, and this behavior was explained by Fenton reactants consumption and the oxalate use. The iron source FOD exhibited a poor performance at pH 6 compared with FeSO4; however, FOD activity was notably increased at pH 6 using a greater amount of catalyst, reaching 86.8% of pyrazinamide degradation in 60 min, even higher than using Fe2+/Ox 1:3 complex (68.9%), which makes it a suitable catalyst for the degradation of pyrazinamide by the photo-Fenton process.
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The authors acknowledge financial support from Facultad de Ciencias Químicas of the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. We also thank F. Espiricueta Candelaria for the technical support in HPLC analysis.
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Conde-Morales, I.I., Hinojosa-Reyes, L., Guzmán-Mar, J.L. et al. Different Iron Oxalate Sources as Catalysts on Pyrazinamide Degradation by the Photo-Fenton Process at Different pH Values. Water Air Soil Pollut 231, 425 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-020-04768-8
- Emerging contaminant
- Photo-Fenton process