Skip to main content

Threats Underestimated in Freshwater Plastic Pollution: Mini-Review

Abstract

Plastic pollution is one of the most acute environmental topics of our time. While there is a great scientific effort to tackle this problem, it has not always been well-coordinated or properly targeted. In this short review, we call for scientists to get involved in three crucial topics (threats) underestimated—or ignored—in freshwater systems: (i) plastic-species entanglement, (ii) plastic as nesting material, and (iii) macroplastic debris coming from mismanaged household solid waste. Reducing the knowledge gaps between marine and freshwater environments will be crucial to solute the plastic pollution problem effectively and globally. Therefore, we make a plea here to reinforce research activities on these three issues in freshwater environments worldwide.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Alatas, S. H. (2000). Intellectual imperialism: Definition, traits, and problems. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, 28, 23–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen, R., Jarvis, D., Sayer, S., & Mills, C. (2012). Entanglement of gray seals Halichoerus grypus at a haul out site in Cornwall, UK. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64, 2815–2819.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beaumont, N. J., Aanesen, M., Austen, M. C., Börger, T., Clark, J. R., Cole, M., Hooper, T., Lindeque, P. K., Pascoe, C., & Wyles, K. J. (2019). Global ecological, social and economic impacts of marine plastic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 142, 189–195.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bergmann, M., Wirzberger, V., Krumpen, T., Lorenz, C., Primpke, S., Tekman, M.B. (2017a). Microplastics in Arctic deep-sea sediments from the HAUSGARTEN observatory. PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879739

  • Blettler, M., Ulla, M. A., Rabuffetti, A. P., & Garello, N. (2017). Plastic pollution in freshwater ecosystems: Macro-, meso-, and microplastic debris in a floodplain lake. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 189, 581.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blettler, M., Abrial, E., Khan, F., Sivri, N., & Espinola, L. (2018). Freshwater plastic pollution: Recognizing research biases and identifying knowledge gaps. Water Research, 143, 416–424.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Canal, D., Mulero-Pázmány, M., Negro, J. J., & Sergio, F. (2016). Decoration Increases the Conspicuousness of Raptor Nests. PLoS ONE, 11(7), e0157440.

    Google Scholar 

  • Darom, G., Miaud, C., Claro, F., Doremus, G., & Galgani, F. (2017). Risk assessment reveals high exposure of sea turtles to marine debris in French Mediterranean and metropolitan Atlantic Waters. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 141, 319–328.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Souza Petersen, E., Krüger, L., Dezevieski, A., Petry, M., & Montone, R. (2016). Incidence of plastic debris in sooty tern nests: A preliminary study on Trindade Island, a remote area of Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 105, 373–376.

    Google Scholar 

  • Forbes Media. (2019). LLC. https://www.forbes.com/sites/jeffkart/2018/08/28/the-ocean-cleanup-is-starting-aims-to-cut-garbage-patch-by-90-by-2040/

  • Guerrero, L. A., Maas, G., & Hogland, W. (2013). Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste Management., 33, 220–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan, F. R., Boyle, D., Chang, E., & Bury, N. (2017). Do polyethylene microplastic beads alter the intestinal uptake of Ag in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)? Analysis of the MP vector effect using in vitro gut sacs. Environmental Pollution., 231, 200–206.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Latrubesse, E. M. (2008). Patterns of anabranching channels: The ultimate end-member adjustment of mega rivers. Geomorphology, 101, 130–145.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lebreton, L., van der Zwet, J., Damsteeg, J.-W., Slat, B., Andrady, A., & Reisser, J. (2017). River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans. Nature Communication, 7, 15611.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lippiatt, S., Opfer, S., Arthur, C. (2013). Marine debris monitoring and assessment. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS-OR&R-46.

  • LITTERBASE. (n.d.). Online Portal for Marine Litter https://litterbase.awi.de/

  • Liu, Z., Adams, M., & Walker, T. (2018). Are exports of recyclables from developed to developing countries waste pollution transfer or part of the global circular economy? Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 136, 22–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morritt, D., Stefanoudis, P. V., Pearce, D., Crimmen, O. A., & Clark, P. F. (2014). Plastic in the Thames: A river runs through it. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 78, 196–200.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • NOAA, (2014). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Debris Program: Report on the Entanglement of Marine Species in Marine Debris with an Emphasis on Species in the United States. Silver Spring, 28.

  • Rodríguez, B., Bécares, J., Rodríguez, A., & Arcos, J. M. (2013). Incidence of entanglements with marine debris by northern gannets (Morus bassanus) in the non-breeding grounds. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 75, 259–263.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, C., Krauth, T., & Wagner, S. (2017). Export of plastic debris by rivers into the sea. Environmental Science & Technology, 51, 12,246–12,253.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sigler, M. (2014). The effects of plastic pollution on aquatic wildlife: Current situations and future solutions. Water Air & Soil Pollution, 225, 2184.

    Google Scholar 

  • Triebskorn, R., Braunbeck, T., Grummt, T., Hanslik, L., Huppertsberg, S., Jekel, M., Knepper, T., Krais, S., Müller, Y., Pittroff, M., Ruhl, A., Schmieg, H., Schür, C., Stobel, C., Wagner, M., Zumbülte, N., & Köhler, H. (2019). Relevance of nano- and microplastics for freshwater ecosystems: A critical review. TrAC Trends Anal Chemistry, 110, 375–379.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Environment Programme. (2016). Marine Plastic Debris and Microplastics. Global Lessons and Research to Inspire Action and Guide Policy Change. UNEP, pp. 274.

  • United Nations Human Settlements Programme: Urbanization and Development: Emerging Futures. 2016. Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 247.

  • Votier, S. C., Archibald, K., Morgan, G., & Morgan, L. (2011). The use of plastic debris as nesting material by a colonial seabird and associated entanglement mortality. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 168–172.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang, F., Wong, C. S., Chen, D., Lu, X., Wang, F., & Zeng, E. (2018a). Interaction of toxic chemicals with microplastics: A critical review. Water Reseach, 139, 208–219.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Witteveen, M., Brown, M., & Ryan, P. (2017). Anthropogenic debris in the nests of kelp gulls in South Africa. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 114, 699–704.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Supplementary data

    1) List of the articles recorded and reviewed on the topic of “plastic-species entanglement” and “plastic-debris as nest-material”. Sources: Scopus.

    • Acampora, H., Lyashevska, O., Van Franeker, J. A., & O’Connor, I. (2016). The use of beached bird surveys for marine plastic litter monitoring in Ireland. Marine Environmental Research, 120, 122–129.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Avio, C. G., Gorbi, S., & Regoli, F. (2017). Plastics and microplastics in the oceans: From emerging pollutants to emerged threat. Marine Environmental Research, 128, 2–11.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Barreiros, J. P., & Raykov, V. S. (2014). Lethal lesions and amputation caused by plastic debris and fishing gear on the loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758). Three case reports from Terceira Island, Azores (NE Atlantic). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 86, 518–522.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Baulch, S., & Perry, C. (2014). Evaluating the impacts of marine debris on cetaceans. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 80, 210–221.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Bearzi, G., Reeves, R. R., Remonato, E., Pierantonio, N., & Airoldi, S. (2011). Risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus in the Mediterranean Sea. Mammalian Biology, 76, 385–400.

      Google Scholar 

    • Beck, C. A., & Barros, N. B. (1991). The impact of debris on the Florida manatee. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 22, 508–510.

      Google Scholar 

    • Bergmann, M., Tekman, M. B., & Gutow, L. (2017b). LITTERBASE: An online portal for marine litter and microplastics and their implications for marine life. In J. Baztan, B. Jorgensen, S. Pahl, R. Thompson, & J. Vanderlinden (Eds.), Fate and impact of microplastics in marine ecosystems, MICRO 2016 (p. 2). Amsterdam: Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812,271-6.00104-6.

      Chapter  Google Scholar 

    • Boren, L. J., Morrissey, M., Muller, C. G., & Gemmell, N. J. (2006). Entanglement of New Zealand fur seals in man-made debris at Kaikoura, New Zealand. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 52, 442–446.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Butterworth, A. (2016). A review of the welfare impact on pinnipeds of plastic marine debris. Frontiers in Marine Science (AUG), 3, 149.

      Google Scholar 

    • Chiba, S., Saito, H., Fletcher, R., Yogi, T., Kayo, M., Miyagi, S., Ogido, M., & Fujikura, K. (2018). Human footprint in the abyss: 30 year records of deep-sea plastic debris. Marine Policy, 96, 204–212.

      Google Scholar 

    • Chin, L. W., & Fung, T. H. (2019). Plastic in Marine Litter. Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, 47, 21–59.

      Google Scholar 

    • Clemente, C. C. C., Paresque, K., & Santos, P. J. P. (2018). The effects of plastic bags presence on a macrobenthic community in a polluted estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 135, 630–635.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Cliff, G., Dudley, S. F. J., Ryan, P. G., & Singleton, N. (2002). Large sharks and plastic debris in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Marine and Freshwater Research, 53, 575–581.

      Google Scholar 

    • Colmenero, A. I., Barría, C., Broglio, E., & García-Barcelona, S. (2017). Plastic debris straps on threatened blue shark Prionace glauca. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 115, 436–438.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Consoli, P., Andaloro, F., Altobelli, C., Battaglia, P., Campagnuolo, S., Canese, S., Castriota, L., Cillari, T., Falautano, M., Pedà, C., Perzia, P., Sinopoli, M., Vivona, P., Scotti, G., Esposito, V., Galgani, F., & Romeo, T. (2018). Marine litter in an EBSA (Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area) of the central Mediterranean Sea: Abundance, composition, impact on benthic species and basis for monitoring entanglement. Environmental Pollution, 236, 405–415.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Duncan, E. M., Botterell, Z. L. R., Broderick, A. C., Galloway, T. S., Lindeque, P. K., Nuno, A., & Godley, B. J. (2017). A global review of marine turtle entanglement in anthropogenic debris: A baseline for further action. Endangered Species Research, 34, 431–448.

      Google Scholar 

    • Fossi, M. C., Panti, C., Baini, M., & Lavers, J. L. (2018). A review of plastic-associated pressures: Cetaceans of the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Australian Shearwaters as case studies. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5, 173.

      Google Scholar 

    • Franco-Trecu, V., Drago, M., Katz, H., Machín, E., & Marín, Y. (2017). With the noose around the neck: Marine debris entangling otariid species. Environmental Pollution, 220, 985–989.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Gall, S. C., & Thompson, R. C. (2015). The impact of debris on marine life. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 92, 170–179.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Grant, M. L., Lavers, J. L., Stuckenbrock, S., Sharp, P. B., & Bond, A. L. (2018). The use of anthropogenic marine debris as a nesting material by brown boobies (Sula leucogaster). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 137, 96–103.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Green, D. S., Boots, B., Blockley, D. J., Rocha, C., & Thompson, R. (2015). Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning. Environmental Science and Technology, 49, 5380–5389.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Gregory, M. R. (2009). Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings- entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364, 2013–2025.

      Google Scholar 

    • Gündoğdua, S., Yeşilyurta, I., & Erbaş, C. (2019). Potential interaction between plastic litter and green turtle Chelonia mydas during nesting in an extremely polluted beach. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 140, 138–145.

      Google Scholar 

    • Hanni, K. D., & Pyle, P. (2000). Entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic materials at South-east Farallon Island, California, 1976–1998. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40, 1076–1081.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Hardesty, B. D., Good, T. P., & Wilcox, C. (2015). Novel methods, new results and science-based solutions to tackle marine debris impacts on wildlife. Ocean and Coastal Management, 115, 4–9.

      Google Scholar 

    • Harrigan, K. E. (1992). Causes of mortality of little penguins Eudyptula minor in Victoria. Emu, 91, 273–277.

      Google Scholar 

    • Hartwig, E., Clemens, T., & Heckroth, M. (2007). Plastic debris as nesting material in a Kittiwake-(Rissa tridactyla)-colony at the Jammerbugt, Northwest Denmark. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54, 595–597.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Hofmeyr, G., De Maine, M., Bester, M., Kirkman, S., Pistorius, P., & Makhado, A. (2002). Entanglement of pinnipeds at Marion Island, Southern Ocean: 1991–2001. Australian Mammalogy, 24, 141–146.

      Google Scholar 

    • Hong, S., Lee, J., Jang, Y. C., Kim, Y. J., Kim, H. J., Han, D., Hong, S. H., Kang, D., & Shim, W. J. (2013). Impacts of marine debris on wild animals in the coastal area of Korea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 66, 117–124.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Ivar do Sul, J. A., Santos, I. R., Friedrich, A. C., Matthiensen, A., & Fillmann, G. (2011). Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches. Estuaries and Coasts, 34, 814–823.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Jones, M. M. (1995). Fishing debris in the Australian marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30, 25–33.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Laist, D. W. (1987). Overview of the biological effects of lost and discarded plastic debris in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18(6 SUPPL. B), 319–326.

      Google Scholar 

    • Lavers, J. L., Hodgson, J. C., & Clarke, R. H. (2013). Prevalence and composition of marine debris in Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) nests at Ashmore Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 77, 320–324.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Lawson, T. J., Wilcox, C., Johns, K., Dann, P., & Hardesty, B. D. (2015). Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 98, 354–357.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Li, W. C., Tse, H. F., & Fok, L. (2016). Plastic waste in the marine environment: A review of sources, occurrence and effects. Science of the Total Environment, 566–567, 333–349.

      Google Scholar 

    • Lusher, A. L., Hernandez-Milian, G., Berrow, S., Rogan, E., & O’Connor, I. (2018). Incidence of marine debris in cetaceans stranded and bycaught in Ireland: Recent findings and a review of historical knowledge. Environmental Pollution, 232, 467–476.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Martin, J. M., Jambeck, J. R., Ondich, B. L., & Norton, T. M. (2019). Comparing quantity of marine debris to loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting and non-nesting emergence activity on Jekyll Island, Georgia, USA. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 139, 1–5.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • McIntosh, R. R., Kirkwood, R., Sutherland, D. R., & Dann, P. (2015). Drivers and annual estimates of marine wildlife entanglement rates: A long-term case study with Australian fur seals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101, 716–725.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Mellish, S., Pearson, E. L., Sanders, B., & Litchfield, C. A. (2016). Marine wildlife entanglement and the Seal the Loop initiative: a comparison of two free-choice learning approaches on visitor knowledge, attitudes and conservation behavior. International Zoo Yearbook, 50, 129–154.

      Google Scholar 

    • Nash, A. D. (1992). Impacts of marine debris on subsistence fishermen: An exploratory study. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24, 150–156.

      Google Scholar 

    • Nelms, S. E., Duncan, E. M., Broderick, A. C., Galloway, T. S., Godfrey, M. H., Hamann, M., Lindeque, P. K., & Godley, B. J. (2016). Plastic and marine turtles: A review and call for research. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 73, 165–181.

      Google Scholar 

    • Nunes, J. A., Sampaio, C. L., Barros, F., & Leduc, A. O. (2018). Plastic debris collars: An underreported stressor in tropical reef fishes. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 129, 802–805.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • OECD (2017), OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard, (2017). The digital transformation, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264268821-en

    • O’Hanlon, N. J., James, N. A., Masden, E. A., & Bond, A. L. (2017). Seabirds and marine plastic debris in the northeastern Atlantic: A synthesis and recommendations for monitoring and research. Environmental Pollution, 231, 1291–1301.

      Google Scholar 

    • Page, B., McKenzie, J., McIntosh, R., Baylis, A., Morrissey, A., Calvert, N., Haase, T., Berris, M., Dowie, D., Shaughnessy, P. D., & Goldsworthy, S. D. (2004). Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 33–42.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Panti, C., Baini, M., Lusher, A., Hernandez-Milan, G., Bravo Rebolledo, E. L., Unger, B., Syberg, K., Simmonds, M. P., & Fossi, M. C. (2019). Marine litter: One of the major threats for marine mammals. Outcomes from the European Cetacean Society workshop. Environmental Pollution, 247, 72–79.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Pemberton, D., Brothers, N. P., & Kirkwood, R. (1992). Entanglement of Australian fur seals in man-made debris in tasmanian waters. Wildlife Research, 19, 151–159.

      Google Scholar 

    • Provencher, J. F., Bond, A. L., Avery-Gomm, S., Borrelle, S. B., Bravo Rebolledo, E. L., Hammer, S., Kühn, S., Lavers, J. L., Mallory, M. L., Trevail, A., & Van Franeker, J. A. (2017). Quantifying ingested debris in marine megafauna: A review and recommendations for standardization. Analytical Methods, 9, 1454–1469.

      Google Scholar 

    • Sazima, I., Gadig, O. B. F., Namora, R. C., & Motta, F. S. (2002). Plastic debris collars on juvenile carcharhinid sharks (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) in southwest Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44, 1149–1151.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Schrey, E., & Vauk, G. J. M. (1987). Records of entangled gannets (Sula bassana) at Helgoland, German Bight. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18(6 SUPPL. B), 350–352.

      Google Scholar 

    • Stewart, B. S., & Yochem, P. K. (1987). Entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic debris and fishing net and line fragments at San Nicolas and San Miguel Islands, California, 1978–1986. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 18(6 SUPPL. B), 336–339.

      Google Scholar 

    • Tavares, D. C., Da Costa, L. L., Rangel, D. F., De Moura, J. F., Zalmon, I. R., & Siciliano, S. (2016). Nests of the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) as a potential indicator of tropical ocean pollution by marine debris. Ecological Indicators, 70, 10–14.

      Google Scholar 

    • Thiel, M., Luna-Jorquera, G., álvarez-Varas, R., Gallardo, C., Hinojosa, I. A., Luna, N., Miranda-Urbina, D., Morales, N., Ory, N., Pacheco, A. S., Portflitt-Toro, M., & Zavalaga, C. (2018). Impacts of marine plastic pollution from continental coasts to subtropical gyres-fish, seabirds, and other vertebrates in the SE Pacific. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5, 238.

      Google Scholar 

    • Triessnig, P., Roetzer, A., & Stachowitsch, M. (2012). Beach condition and marine debris: New hurdles for sea turtle Hatchling Survival. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 11, 68–77.

      Google Scholar 

    • Verlis, K. M., Campbell, M. L., & Wilson, S. P. (2014). Marine debris is selected as nesting material by the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) within the Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 87, 180–190.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Waluda, C. M., & Staniland, I. J. (2013). Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals at Bird Island, South Georgia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 74, 244–252.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Wilcox, C., Mallos, N. J., Leonard, G. H., Rodriguez, A., & Hardesty, B. D. (2016). Using expert elicitation to estimate the impacts of plastic pollution on marine wildlife. Marine Policy, 65, 107–114.

      Google Scholar 

    • Williams, R., Ashe, E., & O’Hara, P. D. (2011). Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 1303–1316.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Woods, J. S., Rødder, G., & Verones, F. (2019). An effect factor approach for quantifying the entanglement impact on marine species of macroplastic debris within life cycle impact assessment. Ecological Indicators, 99, 61–66.

      Google Scholar 

    2) List of the articles reviewed on the topic of “macroplastics vs. microplastics in freshwater environments”. Sources: Blettler et al. (2018).

    • Acha, E. M., Mianzan, H. W., Iribarne, O., Gagliardini, D. A., Lasta, C., & Daleo, P. (2003). The role of the Río de la Plata bottom salinity front in accumulating debris. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46, 197–202.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Anschober, R., Heinisch, W. (2015). On the trail of microplastics: the first results of the large Austrian study “Plastics in the Danube” for Upper Austria. Information about the press conference. http://www.land-­oberoesterreich.gv.at/Mediendateien/LK/PK_LR_Anschober_12.3.2015_Internet.pdf.

    • Arias-Villamizar, C. A., & Vazquez-Morillas, A. (2018). Degradation of conventional and oxodegradable high density polyethylene in tropical aqueous and outdoor environments. Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental, 34, 137–147.

      Google Scholar 

    • Baldwin, A. K., Corsi, S. R., & Mason, S. A. (2016). Plastic Debris in 29 Great Lakes Tributaries: Relations to Watershed Attributes and Hydrology. Environmental Science and Technology, 50, 10,377–10,385.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Ballent, A., Corcoran, P. L., Madden, O., Helm, P. A., & Longstaffe, F. J. (2016). Sources and sinks of microplastics in Canadian Lake Ontario nearshore, tributary and beach sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 110, 383–395.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Bartolotta, J. F., & Hardy, S. D. (2018). Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio’s Lake Erie basin. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 127, 576–585.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Biginagwa, F. J., Mayoma, B. S., Shashoua, Y., Syberg, K., & Khan, F. R. (2015). First evidence of microplastics in the African Great Lakes: Recovery from Lake Victoria Nile perch and Nile tilapia. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 42, 146–149.

      Google Scholar 

    • Brandsma, S. H., Nijssen, P., van Velzen, M. J. M., Leslie, H. A. (2013). Microplastics in river suspended particulate matter and sewage treatment plants (report), IVM Institut for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, pp. 20.

    • Brandsma, S. H., van Velzen, M. J. M., Leslie, H. A. (2015). Microplastics in North Sea marine sediment and Dutch river suspended particle matter (report), IVM Institut for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, pp. 20.

    • Browne, M. A., Galloway, T., & Thompson, R. (2010). Spatial Patterns of Plastic Debris along Estuarine Shorelines. Environmental Science and Technology, 44, 3404–3409.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Bruge, A., Barreau, C., Carlot, J., Collin, H., Moreno, C., & Maison, P. (2018). Monitoring litter inputs from the Adour river (southwest France) to the marine environment. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 6, 24.

      Google Scholar 

    • Cable, R. N., Beletsky, D., Beletsky, R., Wigginton, K., Locke, B. W., & Duhaime, M. B. (2017). Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World’s Largest Freshwater Resource. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 5, 45.

      Google Scholar 

    • Canniff, P. M., & Hoang, T. C. (2018). Microplastic ingestion by Daphnia magna and its enhancement on algal growth. Science of the Total Environment, 633, 500–507.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Capozzi, F., Carotenuto, R., Giordano, S., & Spagnuolo, V. (2018). Evidence on the effectiveness of mosses for biomonitoring of microplastics in fresh water environment. Chemosphere, 205, 1–7.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Carr, S. A., Liu, J., & Tesoro, A. G. (2016). Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants. Water research, 91, 174–182.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Castañeda, R. A., Avlijas, S., Simard, M. A., & Ricciardi, A. (2014). Microplastic pollution in St. Lawrence River sediments. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 71, 1767–1771.

      Google Scholar 

    • Collard, F., Gasperi, J., Gilbert, B., Eppe, G., Azimi, S., Rocher, V., & Tassin, B. (2018). Anthropogenic particles in the stomach contents and liver of the freshwater fish Squalius cephalus. Science of the Total Environment, 643, 1257–1264.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Corcoran, P. L., Norris, T., Ceccanese, T., Walzak, M. J., Helm, P. A., & Marvin, C. H. (2015). Hidden plastics of Lake Ontario, Canada and their potential preservation in the sediment record. Environmental Pollution, 204, 17–25.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Correa-Herrera, T., Barletta, M., Lima, A. R. A., Jiménez-Segura, L. F., & Arango-Sánchez, L. B. (2017). Spatial distribution and seasonality of ichthyoplankton and anthropogenic debris in a river delta in the Caribbean Sea. Journal of Fish Biology, 90, 1356–1387.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Costa, M. F., Silva-Cavalcanti, J. S., Barbosa, C. C., Portugal, J. L., & Barletta, M. (2011). Plastics buried in the inter-tidal plain of a tropical estuarine ecosystem. Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, 64, 339–343.

      Google Scholar 

    • Dantas, D. V., Barletta, M., & Da Costa, M. F. (2012). The seasonal and spatial patterns of ingestion of polyfilament nylon fragments by estuarine drums (Sciaenidae). Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 19, 600–606.

      Google Scholar 

    • Di, M., & Wang, J. (2018). Microplastics in surface waters and sediments of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Science of The Total Environment, 616, 1620–1627.

      Google Scholar 

    • Dris, R., Imhof, H., Sanchez, W., Gasperi, J., Galgani, F., Tassin, B., Laforsch, C. (2015a). Beyond the ocean: Contamination of freshwater ecosystems with (micro) plastic particles. Environmental Chemistry, CSIRO Publishing, 32 pp.

    • Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Rocher, V., Saad, M., Renault, N., & Tassin, B. (2015b). Microplastic contamination in an urban area: a case study in Greater Paris. Environmental Chemistry, 12, 592–599.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Dris, R., Gasperi, J., Rocher, V., & Tassin, B. (2018). Synthetic and non-synthetic anthropogenic fibers in a river under the impact of Paris Megacity: Sampling methodological aspects and flux estimations. Science of the Total Environment, 618, 157–164.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Eckert, E. M., Di Cesare, A., Kettner, M. T., Arias-Andres, M., Fontaneto, D., Grossart, H.-P., & Corno, G. (2018). Microplastics increase impact of treated wastewater on freshwater microbial community. Environmental Pollution, 234, 495–502.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Eriksen, M., Mason, S., Wilson, S., Box, C., Zellers, A., Edwards, W., Farley, H., & Amato, S. (2013). Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 77, 177–182.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Faure, F., Corbaz, M., Baecher, H., & de Alencastro, L. (2012). Pollution due to plastics and microplastics in Lake Geneva and in the Mediterranean Sea. Archives des Sciences, 65, 157–164.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Faure, F., Gagnaux, V., Baecher, H., Neuhaus, V., & de Alencastro, L. (2013). Microplastiques sur les plages et la surface du Léman. Résultats préliminaires. Bulletin de l’ARPEA, 49, 15–18.

      Google Scholar 

    • Faure, F., Demars, C., Wieser, O., Kunz, M., & de Alencastro, L. F. (2015). Plastic pollution in Swiss surface waters: nature and concentrations, interaction with pollutants. Environmental Chemistry, 12, 582–591.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Fischer, E. K., Paglialonga, L., Czech, E., & Tamminga, M. (2016). Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments – A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy). Environmental Pollution, 213, 648–657.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Fok, L., & Cheung, P. K. (2015). Hong Kong at the Pearl River Estuary: A hotspot of microplastic pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 99, 112–118.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Free, C. M., Jensen, O. P., Mason, S. A., Eriksen, M., Williamson, N. J., & Boldgiv, B. (2014). High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 85, 156–163.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Gallagher, A., Rees, A., Rowe, R., Stevens, J., & Wright, P. (2016). Microplastics in the Solent estuarine complex, UK: An initial assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 102, 243–249.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Gasperi, J., Dris, R., Bonin, T., Rocher, V., & Tassin, B. (2014). Assessment of floating plastic debris in surface water along the Seine River. Environmental Pollution, 195, 163–166.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Gil-Delgado, J. A., Guijarro, D., Gosálvez, R. U., López-Iborra, G. M., Ponz, A., & Velasco, A. (2017). Presence of plastic particles in waterbirdsfaeces collected in Spanishlakes. Environmental Pollution, 220, 732–736.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Hendrickson, E., Minor, E. C., & Schreiner, K. (2018). Microplastic abundance and composition in western Lake Superior as determined via microscopy, Pyr-GC/MS and FTIR. Environmental Science and Technology, 52, 1787–1796.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Hoellein, T. J., McCormick, A., Kelly, J. J. (2014). Riverine microplastic: abundance and bacterial community colonization. In: Joint Aquatic Sciences Meeting. Portland, OR, USA.

    • Hoffman, M. J., & Hittinger, E. (2016). Inventory and transport of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 115, 273–281.

      Google Scholar 

    • Hohenblum, P., Frischenschlager, H., Reisinger, H., Konecny, R., Uhl, M., Mühlegger, S., Habersack, H., Liedermann, M., Gmeiner, P., Weidenhiller, B., Fischer, N., Rindler, R. (2015a). Plastik in der Donau - UntersuchungzumVorkommen von Kunststoffen in der Donau in Österreich, Umweltbundesamt - BOKU Report 0547, ISBN 978–3–99,004-358-5, 120 pp.

    • Hohenblum, P., Liebmann, B., Liedermann, M. (2015b). Plastic and microplastic in the environment. Technical Report 0551, ISBN 978–3–99,004-363-9, 31 pp.

    • Holland, E. R., Mallory, M. L., & Shutler, D. (2016). Plastics and other anthropogenic debris in freshwater birds from Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 571, 251–258.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Horton, A. A., Svendsen, C., Williams, R., Spurgeon, D., & Lahive, E. (2016). Large microplastic particles in sediments of tributaries of the River Thames, UK – Abundance, sources and methods for effective quantification. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 114, 218–226.

      Google Scholar 

    • Horton, A. A., Jürgens, M. D., Lahive, E., van Bodegom, P. M., & Vijver, M. G. (2018). The influence of exposure and physiology on microplastic ingestion by the freshwater fish Rutilus rutilus (roach) in the River Thames, UK. Environmental Pollution, 236, 188–194.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Hurley, R., Woodward, J., & Rothwell, J. J. (2018). Microplastic contamination of river beds significantly reduced by catchment-wide flooding. Nature Geoscience, 11, 251–257.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Imhof, H. K., Ivleva, N. P., Schmid, J., Niessner, R., & Laforsch, C. (2013). Contamination of beach sediments of a subalpine lake with microplastic particles. Current Biology, 23, 867–868.

      Google Scholar 

    • Imhof, H. K., Laforsch, C., Wiesheu, A. C., Schmid, J., Anger, P. M., Niessner, R., & Ivleva, N. P. (2016). Pigments and plastic in limnetic ecosystems: A qualitative and quantitative study on microparticles of different size classes. Water Research, 98, 64–74.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Imhof, H. K., Wiesheu, A. C., Anger, P. M., Niessner, R., Ivleva, M. P., & Laforsch, C. (2018). Variation in plastic abundance at different lake beach zones - A case study. Science of the Total Environment, 613, 530–537.

      Google Scholar 

    • Ivar do Sul, J. A., Costa, M. F. (2013). Plastic pollution risks in an estuarine conservation unit. In: Conley, D. C., Masselink, G., Russell, P. E., O’Hare, T. J. (Eds.), Proceedings 12th International Coastal Symposium (Plymouth, England), Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue, 65, 48–53.

    • Jabeen, K., Su, L., Li, J., Yang, D., Tong, C., Mu, J., & Shi, H. (2017). Microplastics and mesoplastics in fish from coastal and fresh waters of China. Environmental Pollution, 221, 141–149.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Khan, F., Syberg, K., Shashoua, Y., & Bury, N. (2015). Influence of polyethylene microplastic beads on the uptake and localization of silver in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environmental Pollution, 206, 73–79.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Klein, S., Worch, E., & Knepper, T. P. (2015). Occurrence and Spatial Distribution of Microplastics in River Shore Sediments of the Rhine-Main Area in Germany. Environmental Science and Technology, 49, 6070–6076.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Laforsch, C. (2015). Mikroplastik Analyze Nordrhein-Westfalen, Universität Bayreuth, Technical Report, 35 pp.

    • Lagarde, F., Olivier, O., Zanella, M., Daniel, P., Hiard, S., & Caruso, A. (2016). Microplastic interactions with freshwater microalgae: Hetero-aggregation and changes in plastic density appear strongly dependent on polymer type. Environmental Pollution, 215, 331–339.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Lahens, L., Strady, E., Kieu-Le, T.-C., Dris, R., Boukerma, K., Rinnert, E., Gasperi, J., & Tassin, B. (2018). Macroplastic and microplastic contamination assessment of a tropical river (Saigon River, Vietnam) transversed by a developing megacity. Environmental Pollution, 236, 661–671.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Lechner, A., Keckeis, H., Lumesberger-Loisl, F., Zens, B., Krusch, R., Tritthart, M., Glas, M., & Schludermann, E. (2014). The Danube so colorful: A potpourri of plastic litter outnumbers fish larvae in Europe’s second largest river. Environmental Pollution, 188, 177–181.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Lee, R. F., & Sanders, D. P. (2015). The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 91, 113–119.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Liedermann, M., Gmeiner, P., Pessenlehner, S., Haimann, M., Hohenblum, P., & Habersack, H. (2018). A methodology for measuring microplastic transport in large or medium rivers. Water, 10, 414.

      Google Scholar 

    • Lumesberger-Loisl, F., Gumpinger, C. (2015). Mikroplastik in Fischen: Pilotstudie in der oberösterreichischen Donau. Franz Lumesberger-Loisl & Clemens Gumpinger, Wels. Technical Report, 48 pp.

    • Magni, S., Gagné, F., André, C., Della Torre, C., Auclair, J., Hanana, H., Parenti, C. C., Bonasoro, F., & Binelli, A. (2018). Evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of virgin polystyrene microbeads in freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Science of the Total Environment, 631–632, 778–788.

      Google Scholar 

    • Mani, T., Hauk, A., Walter, U., & Burkhardt-Holm, P. (2015). Microplastics profile along the Rhine River. Scientific Reports, 5, 17,988.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Mason, S. A., Kammin, L., Eriksen, M., Aleid, G., Wilson, S., Box, C., Williamson, N., & Riley, A. (2016). Pelagic plastic pollution within the surface waters of Lake Michigan, USA. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 42, 753–759.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • McCormick, A., Hoellein, T. J., Mason, S. A., Schluep, J., & Kelly, J. J. (2014). Microplastic is an abundant and distinct microbial habitat in an urban river. Environmental Science and Technology, 48, 11,863–11,871.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • McGoran, A. R., Clark, P. F., & Morritt, D. (2017). Presence of microplastic in the digestive tracts of European flounder, Platichthysflesus, and European smelt, Osmerus eperlanus, from the River Thames. Environmental Pollution, 220, 744–751.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Moore, C., Lattin, G., & Zellers, A. (2011). Quantity and type of plastic debris flowing from two urban rivers to coastal waters and beaches of Southern California. Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, 11, 65–73.

      Google Scholar 

    • Murphy, F., & Quinn, M. (2018). The effects of microplastic on freshwater Hydra attenuata feeding, morphology and reproduction. Environmental Pollution, 234, 487–494.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Murphy, F., Ewins, C., Carbonnier, F., & Quinn Wastewater, B. (2016). Treatment works (WwTW) as a source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Environmental Science and Technology, 50, 5800–5808.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Naidoo, T., Glassom, D., & Smit, A. J. (2015). Plastic pollution in five urban estuaries of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 101, 473–480.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Nel, H. A., Dalu, T., & Wasserman, R. J. (2018). Sinks and sources: Assessing microplastic abundance in river sediment and deposit feeders in an Austral temperate urban river system. Science of the Total Environment, 612, 950–956.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Ogonowski, M., Schür, C., Jarsén, Å., & Gorokhova, E. (2016). The Effects of Natural and Anthropogenic Microparticles on Individual Fitness in Daphnia magna. PLoS ONE, 11(5), e0155063.

      Google Scholar 

    • Pate, J. A., & McKinnon, E. E. (2016). A citizen engagement approach to water advocacy: Experiences from “eXXpedition Great Lakes”. Maritime Affairs, 12, 99–108.

      Google Scholar 

    • Pazos, R., Maiztegui, T., Colautti, D., Paracampo, A., & Gómez, N. (2017). Microplastics in gut contents of coastal freshwater fish from Río de la Plata estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.06.007.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Peng, G., Zhu, B., Yang, D., Su, L., Shi, H., & Li, D. (2017). Microplastics in sediments of the Changjiang Estuary, China. Environmental Pollution, 225, 283–290.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Peng, G., Xu, P., Zhu, B., Bai, M., & Li, D. (2018). Microplastics in freshwater river sediments in Shanghai, China: A case study of risk assessment in mega-cities. Environmental Pollution, 234, 448–456.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Peters, C. A., & Bratton, S. P. (2016). Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA. Environmental Pollution, 210, 380–387.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Phillips, M. B., & Bonner, T. H. (2015). Occurrence and amount of microplastic ingested by fishes in watersheds of the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 100, 264–269.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Possatto, F. E., Barletta, M., Costa, M. F., Ivar do Sul, J. A., & Dantas, D. V. (2011). Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: An unexpected fisheries impact. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 1098–1102.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Ramos, J. A. A., Barletta, M., & Costa, M. F. (2012). Ingestion of nylon threads by Gerreidae while using a tropical estuary as foraging grounds. Aquatic Biology, 17, 29–34.

      Google Scholar 

    • Rech, S., Macaya-Caquilpán, V., Pantoja, J. F., Rivadeneira, M. M., Campodónico, C. K., & Thiel, M. (2015). Sampling of riverine litter with citizen scientists –findings and recommendations. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 335.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Rehse, S., Kloas, W., & Zarfl, C. (2016). Short-term exposure with high concentrations of pristine microplastic particles leads to immobilization of Daphnia magna. Chemosphere, 153, 91–99.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Reynolds, C., & Ryan, P. G. (2018). Micro-plastic ingestion by waterbirds from contaminated wetlands in South Africa. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 126, 330–333.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Rosenkranz, P., Chaudhry, Q., Stone, V., & Fernandes, T. F. (2009). A comparison of nanoparticle and fine particle uptake by Daphnia magna. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 28, 2142–2149.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Sadri, S. S., & Thompson, R. C. (2014). On the quantity and composition of floating plastic debris entering and leaving the Tamar Estuary, Southwest England. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 81, 55–60.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Sanchez, W., Bender, C., & Porcher, J.-M. (2014). Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: preliminary study and first evidence. Environmental Research, 128, 98–100.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Scherer, C., Brennholt, N., Reifferscheid, G., & Wagner, M. (2017). Feeding type and development drive the ingestion of microplastics by freshwater invertebrates. Scientific Reports, 7, 17006.

      Google Scholar 

    • Sighicelli, M., Pietrelli, L., Lecce, F., Iannilli, V., Falconieri, M., Coscia, L., Di Vito, S., Nuglio, S., & Zampetti, G. (2018). Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of Italian Subalpine Lakes. Environmental Pollution, 236, 645–651.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Silva-Cavalcanti, J. S., Silva, J. S. B., Jose de França, E., Barbosa de Araújo, M. C., & Gusmão, F. (2017). Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource. Environmental Pollution, 221, 218–226.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Sofra, C., Clarke, B., Fowler, G. (2010). Microplastics in the Marine Environment: Investigating Possible Sources, Presence and Abundance. Research Meeting, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, UK.

    • Sruthy, S., & Ramasamy, E. V. (2017). Microplastic pollution in Vembanad Lake, Kerala, India: The first report of microplastics in lake and estuarine sediments in India. Environmental Pollution, 222, 315–322.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Su, L., Xue, Y., Li, L., Yang, D., Kolandhasamy, P., Li, D., & Shi, H. (2016). Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China. Environmental Pollution, 216, 711–719.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Urgert, W. (2015). Microplastics in the rivers Meuse and Rhine - Developing guidance for a possible future monitoring program. Master’s thesis Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, 106 pp.

    • Wang, J., Peng, J., Tan, Z., Gao, Y., Zhan, Z., Chen, Q., & Cai, L. (2016a). Microplastics in the surface sediments from the Beijiang River littoral zone: Composition, abundance, surface textures and interaction with heavy metals. Chemosphere, 171, 248–258.

      Google Scholar 

    • Wang, L. S., Wu, Y. L., Liu, W. H., Li, M., Shi, J., Li, P., & Zheng, J. (2016b). Micro-plastic pollution of unspoiled beaches around Rongjiang River estuary. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 36, 582–589.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Wang, W., Yuan, W., Chen, Y., & Wang, J. (2018b). Microplastics in surface waters of Dongting Lake and Hong Lake, China. Science of the Total Environment, 633, 539–545.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Warrack, S., Challis, J. K., Hanson, M. L., Rennie, M. D. (2017). Microplastics flowing into Lake Winnipeg: densities, sources, flux, and fish exposures. Proceedings of Manitoba’s Undergraduate Science and Engineering Research, 3, 5–15.

    • Weber, A., Scherer, C., Brennholt, N., Reifferscheid, G., & Wagner, M. (2018). PET microplastics do not negatively affect the survival, development, metabolism and feeding activity of the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex. Environmental Pollution, 234, 181–189.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Williams, A. T., & Simmons, S. L. (1996). The degradation of plastic litter in rivers: implications for beaches. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 2, 63–72.

      Google Scholar 

    • Xiong, X., Zhang, K., Chen, X., Shi, H., Luo, Z., & Wu, C. (2018). Sources and distribution of microplastics in China’s largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake. Environmental Pollution, 235, 899–906.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Yonkos, L. T., Friedel, E. A., Perez-Reyes, A. C., Ghosal, S., & Arthur, C. D. (2014). Microplastics in four estuarine rivers in the Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(14), 195–14,202.

      Google Scholar 

    • Zbyszewski, M., & Corcoran, P. L. (2011). Distribution and degradation of fresh water plastic particles along the beaches of Lake Huron, Canada. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 220, 365–372.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Zbyszewski, M., Corcoran, P. L., & Hockin, A. (2014). Comparison of the distribution and degradation of plastic debris along shorelines of the Great Lakes, North America. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 40, 288–299.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Zhang, K., Su, J., Xiong, X., Wu, X., Wu, C., & Liu, J. (2016). Microplastic pollution of lake shore sediments from remote lakes in Tibet plateau, China. Environmental Pollution, 219, 450–455.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Zhang, K., Xiong, X., Hu, H., Wu, C., Bi, Y., Wu, Y., Zhou, B., Lam, P., & Liu, J. (2017). Occurrence and Characteristics of Microplastic Pollution in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Environmental Science and Technology, 51, 3794–3801.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Zhao, S., Zhu, L., Wang, T., & Li, D. (2014). Suspended microplastics in the surface water of the Yangtze Estuary System, China: First observations on occurrence, distribution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 86, 562–568.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Zhao, S., Zhu, L., & Li, D. (2015). Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China. Environmental Pollution, 206, 597–604.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Ziajahromi, S., Kumar, A., Neale, P., & Leusch, F. (2017a). Impact of Microplastic Beads and Fibers on Waterflea (Ceriodaphnia dubia) Survival, Growth, and Reproduction: Implications of Single and Mixture Exposures. Environmental Science and Technology, 51, 13,397–13,406.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    • Ziajahromi, S., Neale, P., Rintoul, L., & Leusch, F. D. (2017b). Wastewater treatment plants as a pathway for microplastics: Development of a new approach to sample wastewater-based microplastics. Water Research, 112, 93–99.

      CAS  Google Scholar 

    Download references

    Acknowledgments

    This research was financially supported by The Rufford Foundation (Grant no. 26610-2). This paper was developed under the auspices of the UNESCO Chair on River Culture/Fleuves et Patrimoine granted to K.M. Wantzen. We would like to thank the reviewers for their thoughtful comments and efforts towards improving our manuscript.

    Author information

    Authors and Affiliations

    Authors

    Corresponding author

    Correspondence to Martín C. M. Blettler.

    Additional information

    Publisher’s Note

    Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

    Rights and permissions

    Reprints and Permissions

    About this article

    Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

    Cite this article

    Blettler, M.C.M., Wantzen, K.M. Threats Underestimated in Freshwater Plastic Pollution: Mini-Review. Water Air Soil Pollut 230, 174 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4220-z

    Download citation

    • Received:

    • Accepted:

    • Published:

    • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4220-z

    Keywords

    • Plastic pollution
    • Freshwater
    • Macroplastic
    • Entanglement
    • Nesting material