RETRACTED ARTICLE: Immobilization of Heavy Metals in e-Waste Contaminated Soils by Combined Application of Biochar and Phosphate Fertilizer

Abstract

This paper reports the effects of single and combined application of biochar and phosphate fertilizer on immobilization of heavy metals in e-waste-contaminated soils. The results showed that combined amending biochar and phosphate fertilizer improved physical and chemical characteristics of soil but resulted in ammonium nitrogen loss. Biochar combined with phosphate fertilizer increased shoot biomass of lettuce while biochar applied alone could inhibit the growth of lettuce. A distinct decrease of heavy metal concentrations in lettuce was observed in phosphate fertilizer + biochar (3.0%) treatments while highest heavy metal concentrations in shoots and roots were observed in control treatments. In phosphate fertilizer (0.8%) + biochar (3.0%) treatment, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations of lettuce leaf were reduced by 34.78%, 29.37%, 46.59%, and 40.95%, respectively. Biochar + phosphate fertilizer and biochar both reduced bioconcentration of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in different tissues of lettuce while transshipment of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from root to shoot increased after combined amendment of biochar with phosphate fertilizer. Application of phosphate fertilizer + biochar enhanced the immobilization of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn by decreasing the exchangeable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soil. Precipitation, adsorption, ionic exchange, and chelation contributed to the good immobilization capacity of biochar + phosphate fertilizer on Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in e-waste-contaminated soils.

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Change history

  • 28 May 2019

    The authors have retracted this article. After publication they became aware that the data for cattle manure biochar reported in this article are actually data for rice straw biochar. The results, discussion and conclusions are therefore invalid. All authors agree with the retraction.

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Funding

This work was supported by the the National Key R&D Program of China (No.2017YFD0801300), Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (No.2017B020203001), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Public Welfare Research Institutes (No.PM-zx703-201803-079).

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Correspondence to Zhiliang Chen.

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The authors have retracted this article. After publication they became aware that the data for cattle manure biochar reported in this article are actually data for rice straw biochar. The results, discussion and conclusions are therefore invalid. All authors agree with the retraction.

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Huang, L., Liu, C., Liu, X. et al. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Immobilization of Heavy Metals in e-Waste Contaminated Soils by Combined Application of Biochar and Phosphate Fertilizer. Water Air Soil Pollut 230, 26 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-019-4081-5

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Keywords

  • Biochar
  • Phosphate fertilizer
  • Amelioration
  • Heavy metal
  • Immobilization
  • Lettuce