The permeable reactive barrier (PRB) filled with natural zeolite plays the role of a reactive treatment zone for remediation of contaminated groundwater. Based on column lab experiments, the volume of remediated solution, the distribution (Kd) and retardation (Rd) coefficients were evaluated, confirming successful removal and retention of zinc from contaminated groundwater. The effect of hydrodynamic dispersion on zinc capturing by zeolite in PRB was evaluated by the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (DL) and retarded hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (DLR) using the Brigham method. For different assumed distances of the barrier, the simulation of one-dimensional zinc concentration profile from the point source through the barrier has been modeled by a simple analytical pulse model. The results show that the flow rate has the most significant effect on the concentration profile, peaks, and broadening of curves. The residence contact time (τ) corresponding to higher Kd and Rd as well as lower DL and DLR values outcomes the optimal range of 6.2–9.4 min. This interval corresponds to the experimental performance at the bed length of 8 and 12 cm and flow rate in the range of 6.38–9.57 PV/h. The calculated minimum thickness and longevity confirm the successful application of zeolite as a material in PRB for remediation of zinc contaminated groundwater.
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- A :
The cross-sectional area of the column (cm2)
- c B :
The concentration of contaminant in solution at time tB (mmol/l)
- c o :
The initial contaminant concentration in solution (mmol/l)
- c e :
The equilibrium contaminant concentration in solution (mmol/l)
- D L :
The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (m2/min)
- D LR :
The retardation hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient (m2/min)
- L :
The zeolite bed length (cm)
- L min :
The minimum thickness of zeolite-PRB (cm)
- K d :
The solid/solution distribution (or partition) coefficient (l/g)
- m :
The zeolite mass (g)
- M RT :
The removal efficiency in time t (mmol/cm3 × s)
- M T :
The total amount of contaminant removed during column experiments in time tB (mmol)
- Q :
The solution flow rate (l/h or PV/h)
- q e :
The equilibrium amount of contaminant retained on zeolite (mmol/g)
- R d :
The retardation coefficient (−)
- t :
The retention time (hours or days)
- t B :
The time that corresponds to appearance of contaminant in the effluent from the barrier (h)
- t e :
The retention time in equilibrium (h)
- T L :
The minimum longevity of zeolite-PRB (years)
- U :
The effluent pore volume number (−)
- V :
The volume of the contaminant solution passed through the zeolite bed (ml)
- V p :
The volume of zeolite corresponding to one bed volume (ml or PV)
- V e :
Remediate volume of solution in equilibrium (l)
- v f :
The mean pore water velocity (m/min)
- v gw :
The linear groundwater velocity (m/min)
- x :
The distance of the contaminant plume within the barrier (m)
- α :
The retained contaminant percentage (%)
- ε :
The zeolite-fixed bed porosity (−)
- ρ :
The zeolite bulk density (g/cm3)
- τ :
The residence contact time (min)
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This study has been financially supported by the Croatian Science Foundation within the scope of the NAZELLT project (IP-11-2013-4981).
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Vukojević Medvidović, N., Nuić, I., Ugrina, M. et al. Evaluation of Natural Zeolite as a Material for Permeable Reactive Barrier for Remediation of Zinc-Contaminated Groundwater Based on Column Study. Water Air Soil Pollut 229, 367 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-018-4019-3
- Zinc permeable reactive barrier
- Analytical pulse model
- Longevity of PRB