Removal of Fluoride from Water by Locally Available Sand Modified with a Coating of Iron Oxides
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Locally available low-cost material viz. sand from the Kaliani river of Kanaighat area of Golaghat district Assam, India, was collected. The sand was fractionated and the different fractions were characterized by classical chemical analysis, powder XRD, SEM-EDXA, DTA-TGA, and by FT-IR. The chemical analysis of the size fraction of a 600–850-μm range gave more than 90% silica. This fractionated portion was modified by coating with iron oxide. Coating was carried out on the washed and separated sand by repeated treatment of Fe(NO3)3 at 110 and 600 °C, respectively. From FESEM analysis, formation of iron oxide coating over sand surface is clearly observed. The coated sand was used to remove toxic fluoride ion from the drinking water. Iron oxide-coated sand shows highly improved fluoride removal capacity compared to raw sand. The defluoridation capacity of coated sands rose up to 89% from 7% in uncoated raw sand. The effects of different parameters like adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature, initial fluoride concentration, and pH and the effects of different anions present in water along with arsenic on defluoridation capacity of the material were studied in a batch mode.
KeywordsFluoride Fluorosis Kanaighat sand Iron oxide-coated sand Defluoridation
Authors are very thankful to the Director, CSIR-NEIST, Jorhat, Assam, India, for providing facilities for the work and allowing to publish the work, Nagaland University for allowing to register under Ph.D. program, and CSIR project CSC 408 for the infrastructural facilities. Author CG is also grateful to Principal CNB College Bokakhat, Golaghat, Assam, for giving permission to carry out the work as a part of a faculty improvement of the Chemistry Department.
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