Phosphorus Loss Mitigation in Leachate and Surface Runoff from Clay Loam Soil Using Four Lime-Based Materials
The increased eutrophication phenomenon in Quebec lakes calls for an urgent phosphorus-reducing strategy to meet the Quebec water quality standard of 0.03 mg L−1 for phosphorus (P). The objective of this research was to evaluate the application of four lime-based products in reducing P losses through subsurface leachate and surface runoff and to determine their optimum application. Two sets of experiments were conducted: laboratory leaching study and runoff study with a rainfall simulator, using a clay loam soil collected from the Pike river watershed. The former followed a flow method with a full factorial design in three replicates. Soil columns were amended with different application dosages of lime ranging from 0 to 2% by soil weight. The results showed that all four lime-based products could be promising amendments in reducing P losses in the leachate. According to statistical analysis of ANOVA, high calcium hydrated lime and lime kiln dust #2 were found to be the most effective with an optimum application dosage of 1% while reducing total dissolved phosphorus concentrations in leachate from 0.057 to 0.009 and 0.023 mg L−1, respectively. For the runoff study, a rainfall simulator with a maximum rainfall intensity of 2 cm h−1 was built. High calcium hydrated lime and lime kiln dust #2 were able to reduce total dissolved phosphorus to 0.034 and 0.037 mg L−1, respectively. However, particulate phosphorus was significantly increased at the studied application rate. The results from this study can offer a promising measure in reducing total dissolved phosphorus in groundwater while providing a solution to the existing environment issue of eutrophication.
KeywordsPhosphorus Lime Leaching Surface runoff Eutrophication
This study was conducted at the Macdonald Campus of McGill University in collaboration Graymont Inc. to whom we would like to express our sincere thanks. This research was funded by NSERC. We would also like to especially thank Ms. Hélène Lalande for her valuable help in the analysis of the samples in Environmental Soil Laboratory, Department of Natural Resources, McGill University. Also, we would like to thank Sowsen Khatib and Azam Khowaja for their help in the runoff experiment setup and sample collection.
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