Experimental Design Optimization of Dairy Wastewater Ozonation Treatment

  • Magno dos Santos Pereira
  • Alisson Carraro Borges
  • Fernanda Fernandes Heleno
  • Lêda Rita D’Antonino Faroni
  • Joaquim Carlos Gomes Esteves da Silva


In this work, an advanced oxidation process using ozonation combined with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and catalyzed by manganese (Mn2+) in alkaline conditions was investigated to degrade the organic matter present in a synthetic dairy wastewater (SDW) with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2.3 g L−1. The effect of independent factors such as pH (7–13), H2O2/O3 ratio (0–1), and Mn2+ concentration (0–1.71 g L−1) has been evaluated and the process optimized using a factorial design and a central composite design (CCD) in sequence. The experiment has been made in batch trials using 2 L of SDW in which ozone was bubbled during 2 h and samples collected for COD analyses, used as response variable. In the factorial experiment, the effect of H2O2 was not significant for all the ratios tested (p value > 0.10), and the effects of the pH and Mn2+ were positive and significant (p value ≤ 0.05). In the CCD, the linear (positive) and quadratic (negative) effects of pH and Mn2+ were significant (p values ≤ 0.05 and ≤ 0.10, respectively). According to the response optimizer, the optimal condition for the ozonation catalyzed by manganese at alkaline medium (COD removal of 69.4%) can be obtained in pH 10.2 and Mn2+ concentration of 1.71 g L−1. Moreover, COD removals above 60% can be obtained for pH values of 9.5 to 11 and Mn2+ concentrations of 0.6 g L−1.


Ozone AOP Catalytic ozonation Synthetic dairy wastewater Manganese Hydrogen peroxide 



We thank the Erasmus Be Mundus Program (BM15DM0984) and FAPEMIG Foundation (PPM Program).


  1. Ahmadi, M., Kakavandi, B., Jaafarzadeh, N., & Babaei, A. A. (2017). Catalytic ozonation of high saline petrochemical wastewater using PAC@ Fe II Fe 2 III O 4: optimization, mechanisms and biodegradability studies. Separation and Purification Technology, 177, 293–303. Scholar
  2. APHA, AWWA, & WEF. (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (22nd ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation.Google Scholar
  3. Arslan, I., Balcioglu, I. A., Tuhkanen, T., & Bahnemann, D. (2000). H2O2/UV-C and Fe 2+/H2 O2/UV-C versus TiO2/UV-A treatment for reactive dye wastewater. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 126(10), 903–911. Scholar
  4. Assalin, M. R., Silva, P. L., & Durán, N. (2006). Comparison of the efficiency of ozonation and catalytic ozonation (Mn II and Cu II) in phenol degradation. Química Nova, 29(1), 24–27. Scholar
  5. Diya’uddeen, B. H., Daud, W. M. A. W., & Aziz, A. A. (2011). Treatment technologies for petroleum refinery effluents: a review. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 89(2), 95–105. Scholar
  6. Gottschalk, C., Libra, J. A., & Saupe, A. (2009). Ozonation of water and waste water: a practical guide to understanding ozone and its applications (2ed.). Weinheim: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gracia, R., Aragües, J. L., & Ovelleiro, J. L. (1996). Study of the catalytic ozonation of humic substances in water and their ozonation byproducts. Ozone: Science & Engineering, 18(3), 195–208. Scholar
  8. Hu, E., Shang, S., Tao, X.-M., Jiang, S., & Chiu, K.-L. (2016). Regeneration and reuse of highly polluting textile dyeing effluents through catalytic ozonation with carbon aerogel catalysts. Journal of Cleaner Production, 137, 1055–1065. Scholar
  9. Huang, Y., Cui, C., Zhang, D., Li, L., & Pan, D. (2015). Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate in aqueous solution in the presence of iron-loaded activated carbon. Chemosphere, 119, 295–301. Scholar
  10. Hübner, U., Zucker, I., & Jekel, M. (2015). Options and limitations of hydrogen peroxide addition to enhance radical formation during ozonation of secondary effluents. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination, 5(1), 8–16. Scholar
  11. Lima, A. P. S., Scaratti, G., Bakkar, J. R., José, H. J., & Moreira, R. F. P. (2013). Nanopartículas de óxidos de manganês, ferro e cério como catalisadores da ozonização de efluentes de refinaria de petróleo. Blucher Chemical Engineering Proceedings, 1, 9573–9580. Scholar
  12. Ma, J., & Graham, N. J. D. (1997). Preliminary investigation of manganese-catalyzed ozonation for the destruction of atrazine. Ozone: Science & Engineering, 19(3), 227–240. Scholar
  13. Mahmoud, A., & Freire, R. S. (2007). Métodos emergentes para aumentar a eficiência do ozônio no tratamento de águas contaminadas. Química Nova, 30(1), 198. Scholar
  14. Nerín, C., Aznar, M., & Carrizo, D. (2016). Food contamination during food process. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 48, 63–68. Scholar
  15. Ni, C.-H., Chen, J.-N., & Yang, P.-Y. (2003). Catalytic ozonation of 2-dichlorophenol by metallic ions. Water Science and Technology, 47(1), 77–82.Google Scholar
  16. Paschoalato, C. F. P. R., Trimailovas, M. R., & Di Bernardo, L. (2008). Formation of halogenated organic byproducts using preoxidation with chlorine, ozone and peroxone and post-chlorination of water containing humic substances. Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, 13(3), 313–322. Scholar
  17. Prazeres, A. R., Carvalho, F., & Rivas, J. (2012). Cheese whey management: a review. Journal of Environmental Management, 110, 48–68. Scholar
  18. Rizzo, L. (2011). Bioassays as a tool for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in water and wastewater treatment. Water Research, 45(15), 4311–4340. Scholar
  19. Robinson, T., McMullan, G., Marchant, R., & Nigam, P. (2001). Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresource Technology, 77(3), 247–255. Scholar
  20. Silva, L. V. C., Andrade, M. V., Rodrigues, K., & Marinho, G. (2013). Treatment of synthetic dairy wastewater in batch reactors inoculated with Aspergillus niger AN400. Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, 18(4), 371–380. Scholar
  21. Slavov, A. K. (2017). General characteristics and treatment possibilities of dairy wastewater—a review. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 55(1), 14–28. Scholar
  22. Tikariha, A., & Sahu, O. (2014). Study of characteristics and treatments of dairy industry waste water. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 2(1), 16–22. Scholar
  23. Torres-Sánchez, A. L., López-Cervera, S. J., de la Rosa, C., Maldonado-Vega, M., Maldonado-Santoyo, M., & Peralta-Hernández, J. M. (2014). Electrocoagulation process coupled with advance oxidation techniques to treatment of dairy industry wastewater. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 9, 6103–6112.Google Scholar
  24. Wang, Y., Yu, J., Zhang, D., & Yang, M. (2014). Addition of hydrogen peroxide for the simultaneous control of bromate and odor during advanced drinking water treatment using ozone. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 26(3), 550–554. Scholar
  25. Wu, J., Gao, H., Yao, S., Chen, L., Gao, Y., & Zhang, H. (2015). Degradation of crystal violet by catalytic ozonation using Fe/activated carbon catalyst. Separation and Purification Technology, 147, 179–185. Scholar
  26. Zhuang, H., Guo, J., & Hong, X. (2018). Advanced treatment of paper-making wastewater using catalytic ozonation with waste rice straw-derived activated carbon-supported manganese oxides as a novel and efficient catalyst. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 27(1), 451–457. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magno dos Santos Pereira
    • 1
  • Alisson Carraro Borges
    • 1
  • Fernanda Fernandes Heleno
    • 1
  • Lêda Rita D’Antonino Faroni
    • 1
  • Joaquim Carlos Gomes Esteves da Silva
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural EngineeringFederal University of ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Geosciences, Environment and Spatial PlanningUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations