Effect of Individual/Co-culture of Native Phyllosphere Organisms to Enhance Dracaena sanderiana for Benzene Phytoremediation
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Benzene-tolerant phyllosphere microorganisms isolated from Dracaena sanderiana were identified as Pantoea sp. B11 and Staphylococcus sp. B12. Inoculating D. sanderiana with these microorganisms growing under 70 and 348 mg/m3 of airborne benzene showed a higher benzene removal efficiency than D. sanderiana without inoculation. Under 348 mg/m3 of benzene, inoculating D. sanderiana with Staphylococcus sp. B12 can remove benzene higher than inoculating D. sanderiana with Pantoea sp. B11 and co-culture between Staphylococcus sp. B12 and Pantoea sp. B11. In addition, individual Staphylococcus sp. B12 had higher ability to bio-remediate benzene than individual Pantoea sp. B11 and co-culture. Staphylococcus sp. B12 can also produce high indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and harbor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, which can protect plant from the stress. Photosystem II activity and chlorophyll content of D. sanderiana were decreased clearly under exposure with a 348 mg/m3 of benzene. Inoculating D. sanderiana with Staphylococcus sp. B12 had significantly higher photosystem II activity and chlorophyll content than inoculating D. sanderiana with Pantoea sp. B11 and co-cultures. In co-culture inoculation, Pantoea sp. B11 inhibited growth of Staphylococcus sp. B12, which can probably decrease benzene removal efficiency. Application of Staphylococcus sp. B12 can enhance benzene phytoremediation efficiency in D. sanderiana and protect plant from benzene stress.
KeywordsBenzene Dracaena sanderiana Pantoea sp. B11 Phyllosphere bacteria Staphylococcus sp. B12
The authors would like to thank the financial support provided by the National Research Council of Thailand and King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi through the “KMUTT 55th Anniversary Commemorative fund.”
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