Advertisement

Evaluation of Organic and Inorganic Compounds Extractable by Multiple Methods from Commercially Available Crumb Rubber Mulch

Article

Abstract

Recycled tires are often shredded for use in a variety of consumer-related products. The rubber so used may contain a number of compounds known to be deleterious to human and environmental health. We obtained nine samples of shredded tire material sold over the counter to the general public for home use, as well as six samples used for infill in synthetic turf athletic fields. After thorough cleaning and grinding, samples were extracted with either organic solvent (dichloromethane), strong acid, or simulated acid rain, or allowed to degas passively. Compounds released by these multiple methods were then identified, and in some cases quantified. Solvent extraction yielded 92 separate compounds, of which only about half have been tested for human health effects. Of these, nine are known carcinogens and another 20 are recognized irritants, including respiratory irritants that may complicate asthma. Strong acid extraction released measurable amounts of Pb and Cd and relatively large amounts of Zn. These three metals were specifically targeted for analysis, and others may be present as well, but were unmeasured. Simulated acid rain extracted only Zn in significant quantities. Passive volatilization yielded detectable amounts of 11 compounds. Results demonstrate that recycled tire materials contain and can release a wide variety of substances known to be toxic, and caution would argue against their use where human exposure is likely.

Keywords

Crumb rubber Shredded rubber Tires Contaminants Artificial turf 

Notes

Funding Information

We gratefully acknowledge the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies for support of SD and the Lattner Family Foundation for funding the research.

References

  1. Benoit, G., Hunter, K. S., & Rozan, T. F. (1997). Sources of trace metal contamination artifacts during collection, handling, and analysis of freshwaters. Analytical Chemistry, 69, 1006–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bocca, B., Forte, G., Petrucci, F., Costantini, S., & Izzo, P. (2009). Metals contained and leached from rubber granulates used in synthetic turf areas. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 2183–2190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Byers, J. T. (2002). Fillers for balancing passenger tire tread properties. Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 75, 527–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Celeiro, M., Lamas, J. P., Garcia-Jares, C., Dagnac, T., Ramos, L., & Llompart, M. (2014). Investigation of PAH and other hazardous contaminant occurrence in recycled tyre rubber surfaces. Case-study: restaurant playground in an indoor shopping centre. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 94, 1264–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Depaolini, A. R., Bianchi, G., Fornai, D., Cardelli, A., Badalassi, M., Cardelli, C., & Davoli, E. (2017). Physical and chemical characterization of representative samples of recycled rubber from end-of-life tires. Chemosphere, 184, 1320–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gomes, J., Mota, H., Bordado, J., Cadete, M., Sarmento, G., Ribeiro, A., Baiao, M., Fernandes, J., Pampulim, V., Custodio, M., & Veloso, I. (2010). Toxicological assessment of coated versus uncoated rubber granulates obtained from used tires for use in sport facilities. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 60, 741–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang, M. J., Wang, W., Chan, C. Y., Cheung, K. C., Man, Y. B., Wang, X. M., & Wong, M. H. (2014). Contamination and risk assessment (based on bioaccessibility via ingestion and inhalation) of metal(loid)s in outdoor and indoor particles from urban centers of Guangzhou, China. The Science of the Total Environment, 479, 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jang, J. W., Yoo, T. S., Oh, J. H., & Iwasaki, I. (1998). Discarded tire recycling practices in the United States, Japan and Korea. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 22, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jones, F., Bankiewicz, D., & Hupa, M. (2014). Occurrence and sources of zinc in fuels. Fuel, 117, 763–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kanematsu, M., Hayashi, A., Denison, M. S., & Young, T. M. (2009). Characterization and potential environmental risks of leachate from shredded rubber mulches. Chemosphere, 76, 952–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim, S. D., Ji-Yeon, Y., Kim, H.-H., Yeo, I.-Y., Shin, D.-S., & Lim, Y.-W. (2012). Health risk assessment of lead ingestion exposure by particle sizes in crumb rubber on artificial turf considering bioavailability. Environmental Health and Toxicology, 27, 1–10.Google Scholar
  12. Kruger, O., Kalbe, U., Berger, W., Nordhauss, K., Christoph, G., & Walzel, H. P. (2012). Comparison of batch and column tests for the elution of artificial turf system components. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 13085–13092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kruger, O., Kalbe, U., Richter, E., Egeler, P., Rombke, J., & Berger, W. (2013). New approach to the ecotoxicological risk assessment of artificial outdoor sporting grounds. Environmental Pollution, 175, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li, X. L., Berger, W., Musante, C., & Mattina, M. I. (2010). Characterization of substances released from crumb rubber material used on artificial turf fields. Chemosphere, 80, 279–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Llompart, M., Sanchez-Prado, L., Lamas, J. P., Garcia-Jares, C., Roca, E., & Dagnac, T. (2013). Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers. Chemosphere, 90, 423–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McNitt, A. S., Petrunak, D. M. & Serensits, T. J. (2008). Temperature amelioration of synthetic turf surfaces through irrigation, In: J. C. Stier, L. Han & D. Y. Li (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Turfgrass Science and Management for Sports Fields, pp. 573–581.Google Scholar
  17. Menichini, E., Abate, V., Attias, L., De Luca, S., Di Domenico, A., Fochi, I., Forte, G., Iacovella, N., Iamiceli, A. L., Izzo, P., Merli, F., & Bocca, B. (2011). Artificial-turf playing fields: Contents of metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs, inhalation exposure to PAHs and related preliminary risk assessment. The Science of the Total Environment, 409, 4950–4957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Northeast Recycling Council. (2011). Disposal Bans and Mandatory Recycling in the United States. ReCommunity, 155.Google Scholar
  19. Pant, P., & Harrison, R. M. (2013). Estimation of the contribution of road traffic emissions to particulate matter concentrations from field measurements: a review. Atmospheric Environment, 77, 78–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pavilonis, B. T., Weisel, C. P., Buckley, B., & Lioy, P. J. (2014). Bioaccessibility and risk of exposure to metals and SVOCs in artificial turf field fill materials and fibers. Risk Analysis, 34, 44–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rhodes, E. P., Ren, Z. Y., & Mays, D. C. (2012). Zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 12856–12863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ruffino, B., Fiore, S., & Zanetti, M. C. (2013). Environmental-sanitary risk analysis procedure applied to artificial turf sports fields. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20, 4980–4992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Selbes, M., Yilmaz, O., Khan, A. A., & Karanfil, T. (2015). Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Chemosphere, 139, 617–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shakeel, M., Jabeen, F., Shabbir, S., Asghar, M. S., Khan, M. S., & Chaudhry, A. S. (2016). Toxicity of Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2-NP) through various routes of exposure: a review. Biological Trace Element Research, 172, 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sullivan, J. P. (2006). An assessment of environmental toxicity and potential contamination from artificial turf using shredded or crumb rubber. Ardea Consulting, 43.Google Scholar
  26. Taveira, M., de Pinho, P. G., Goncalves, R. F., Andrade, P. B., & Valentao, P. (2009). Determination of eighty-one volatile organic compounds in dietary Rumex induratus leaves by GC/IT-MS, using different extractive techniques. Microchemical Journal, 93, 67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. USEPA. (2010). Scrap tires: handbook on recycling applications and management for the US and Mexico. In: EPA (Ed.), (p. 80). Washington DC.Google Scholar
  28. Van Ulirsch, G., Gleason, K., Gerstenberger, S., Moffett, D. B., Pulliam, G., Ahmed, T., & Fagliano, J. (2010). Evaluating and regulating lead in synthetic turf. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118, 1345–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wik, A., & Dave, G. (2009). Occurrence and effects of tire wear particles in the environment—a critical review and an initial risk assessment. Environmental Pollution, 157, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Williams, C. F. & Pulley, G. E.. 2002. Synthetic surface heat studies. (p. 4) Brigham Young University.Google Scholar
  31. Yee, D. A. (2008). Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States. Journal of Medical Entomology, 45, 581–593.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yale School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations