Role of Biochar and Fungi on PAH Sorption to Soil Rich in Organic Matter
- 342 Downloads
The use of biochar (BC) has been suggested for remediation of contaminated soils. This study aims to investigate the role of microorganisms in sorption of PAH to BC-amended soils. Fungi, especially the wood and litter-degrading fungi, have shown the ability for humification and to degrade recalcitrant molecules, and are thus suitable model organisms. Haplic Arenosol with high organic matter content was chosen to highlight the importance of soil organic matter (SOM) in PAH sorption, possibly to form non-extractable residue. Basidiomycetous fungi Agrocybe praecox and Phanerochaete velutina grown on pine bark were inoculated in organic matter (OM)-rich Haplic Arenosol and OM-poor sandy loam with either BC or chemically activated BC (ABC) and 14C-labelled pyrene for 60 days. Fungi did not mineralize pyrene, but increased sorption up to 47–56% in BC-amended Haplic Arenosol in comparison with controls (13–25%) without a fungus irrespective of the presence of an adsorbent. In OM-poor sandy loam, only 9–12% of pyrene was sorbed to amended soil in the presence of fungus and adsorbent. The results suggest that BC and fungal amendment increased sorption of pyrene, especially to Haplic Arenosol more than by either BC or fungi alone.
KeywordsActivated biochar Amendment Haplic Arenosol Organic matter Pyrene Sorption
The authors thank Jussi Heinonsalo, Kati Hakala and Kari Steffen for providing the experimental soils, and Kaj-Roger Hurme for providing the guidance in working with labelled compounds. This research was funded by Maj and Tor Nessling Foundation.
- Anasonye F., Winquist E., Kluczek-Turpeinen B., Räsänen M., Salonen K., Steffen K.T., Tuomela M. (2014) Fungal enzyme production and biodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in contaminated sawmill soil. Chemosphere 110:85-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.03.079
- Anasonye, F., Winquist, E., Räsänen, M., Kontro, J., Björklöf, K., Vasilyeva, G., Jørgensen, K. S., Steffen, K. T., & Tuomela, M. (2015). Bioremediation of TNT contaminated soil with fungi under laboratory and pilot scale conditions. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 105, 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Anyika, C., Majid, Z. A., Ibrahim, Z., Zakaria, M. P., & Yahya, A. (2015). The impact of biochars on sorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils—a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 3314–3341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3719-5
- Box, G. E., & Cox, D. R. (1964). An analysis of transformations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B Methodological, 211–252.Google Scholar
- Dai, Z., Hu, J., Barberan, A., Li, Y., Brookes, P. C., He, Y., & Xu, J. (2017). Bacterial community composition associated with pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) varies with pyrolysis temperature and colonization environment. Applied and Environmental Science, 2(2), e00085–e00017.Google Scholar
- FAO-UNESCO. (1997). Soil map of the world. Revised legend, with corrections and updates. World Soil Resources Report 60, Reprinted with updates as Technical paper 20, International Soil Reference and Information Centre, Wageningen, 140 p.Google Scholar
- Grossman, J. M., O’Neill, B. E., Tsai, S. M., Liang, B., Neves, E., Lehmann, J., & Thies, J. E. (2010). Amazonian anthrosols support similar microbial communities that differ distinctly from those extant in adjacent, unmodified soils of the same mineralogy. Microbial Ecology, 60, 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IBI. (2015). Standardized product definition and product testing guidelines for biochar that is used in soil. International biochar Initiative, p.15 http://www.biocharinternational.org/sites/default/files/IBI_Biochar_Standards_V2.1.pdf. Accessed 18 Dec 2016.
- Jin, H. (2010.) Characterization of microbial life colonizing biochar and biochar-amended soils. PhD Dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca.Google Scholar
- Liedekerke, M., Prokop, G., Rabl-Berger, S., Kibblewhite, Louwagie, G. (2014). Progress in the management of contaminated sites in Europe. JRC Reference Reports, Joint Research Centre, Report EUR 26376 EN, European Commission. http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/progress-in-management-of-contaminated-sites-3/joint-research-centre-2014-progress. Accessed 06 Sept 2016.
- Major, J., Rondon, M., Molina, D., Riha, S. J., & Lehmann, J. (2010). Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant Science, 333, 117–128.Google Scholar
- Nielsen, S., Minchin, T., Kimber, S., van Zwieten, L., Gilbert, J., Munroe, P., Joseph, S., & Thomas, T. (2014). Comparative analysis of the microbial communities in agricultural soil amended with enhanced biochars or traditional fertilisers. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 191, 73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olivella, Costa, À., Fernández, I., Cano, L., Jové, P., & Oliveras, A. (2013). Role of chemical components of cork on sorption of aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. International Journal of Environmental Research, 1, 225–234.Google Scholar
- Soil Survey Staff. (1998). Keys to soil taxonomy. United States Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service.Google Scholar
- Taketani, R.G., Lima, A.B., da Conceição Jesus, E., Teixeira W.G., Tiedje J.M., Tsai S/M. (2013). Bacterial community composition of anthropogenic biochar and Amazonian anthrosols assessed by 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 104:233-242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-013-9942-0
- Tammeorg, P., Simojoki, A., Mäkelä, P., Stoddard, F. L., Alakukku, L., & Helenius, J. (2014b). Short-term effects of biochar on soil properties and wheat yield formation with meat bone meal and inorganic fertiliser on a boreal loamy sand. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 191, 108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Watzinger, A., Feichtmair, S., Kitzler, B., Zehetner, F., Kloss, S., Wimmer, B., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S., & Soja, G. (2014). Soil microbial communities responded to biochar application in temperate soils and slowly metabolized 13C-labelled biochar as revealed by 13C PLFA analyses: results from a short-term incubation and pot experiment. European Journal of Soil Science, 65, 40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Winquist, E., Björklöf, K., Schultz, E., Räsänen, M., Salonen, K., Anasonye, F., Cajthaml, T., Steffen, K. T., Jørgensen, K. S., & Tuomela, M. (2014). Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil with fungi—from laboratory to field scale. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 86, 238–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar