Electrochemical Degradation of Nonylphenol Ethoxylate-7 (NP7EO) Using a DiaClean® Cell Equipped with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes (BDD)
- 188 Downloads
Nowadays, the increasing pollution of natural water effluents with surfactant, wetting, dispersing, and emulsifying agents which contain nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP7EO) is an emerging problem that has not received the enough attention. Currently, it is known that degrading this type of highly stable compounds is possible through advanced electrochemical oxidation (AEO), but the degradation of NP7EO has not been tested yet. Thus, this work carries out a study of the degradation of the NP7EO (500 mg L−1) through advanced electrochemical oxidation, using a DiaClean® cell, equipped with boron-doped diamond electrodes (BDD, 70 cm2). The cell operated in a recirculation system with a peristaltic pump, which allowed to control the electrolyte flow. The buffer media for degradation was NH4OH 0.1 M/HCl 0.05 M (pH 9.25). The effect of the current density (j = 20, 30, 40 mA cm−2) was studied, and the cell efficiency for each condition was evaluated. The degradation was followed by total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and absorbance. The cell potential was monitored to determine the operating costs. The best conditions for the mineralization of NP7EO (initial concentration = 500 mg L−1) were applying 40 mA cm−2 and at a flow rate of 12.6 L min−1 during 8 h of electrolysis, achieving a 90% of TOC removal. Therefore, this technology appears as a promising alternative for degrading surfactants like NP7EO in aqueous media.
KeywordsOnylphenol ethoxylate DiaClean® BDD Electrochemical advanced oxidation
The Centro de Investigaciones y Control Ambiental de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional and the Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM for the funding for the development of this project. The technical support of María Citlalit Martínez Soto is recognized.
- APHA-AWWA-WPCF (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st edition. Washington DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation.Google Scholar
- Ayorinde, F. O., Hambright, P., Porter, T. N., & Keith, Q. L. (1999). Use of meso-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin as a matrix for low molecular weight alkylphenol ethoxylates in laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 13(24), 2474–2479. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0231(19991230)13:24<2474::AID-RCM814>3.0.CO;2-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brillas, E. (2014). Electro-Fenton, UVA photoelectro-Fenton and solar photoelectro-Fenton treatments of organics in waters using a boron-doped diamond anode: a review. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society, 58, 239–255.Google Scholar
- Campos-González, E., Frontana-Uribe, B. A., Vasquez-Medrano, R., Macías-Bravo, S., & Ibánez, J. G. (2014). Advanced electrochemical oxidation of methyl parathion at boron-doped diamond electrodes. Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society, 58, 315–321.Google Scholar
- Colborn, T., Meyers, J. P., & Dumanoski, D. (1997). Nuestro futuro robado: Ecoespaña. http://www.informativos.net/public/images/textos/Nuestro%20futuro%20robado.pdf. Accessed 18 July 2017.
- Cox, C. (2002). Pyrethrins/pyrethrum. Journal of Pesticide Reform, 22, 14–20.Google Scholar
- Espinoza-Montero, P. J., Vasquez-Medrano, R., Ibanez, J. G., & Frontana-Uribe, B. A. (2013). Efficient anodic degradation of phenol paired to improved cathodic production of H2O2 at BDD electrodes. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 160(7), G3171–G3177. doi: 10.1149/2.027307jes.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Madsen, H. T., Sogaard, E. G., & Muff, J. (2014). Study of degradation intermediates formed during electrochemical oxidation of pesticide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) at boron doped diamond (BDD) and platinum-iridium anodes. Chemosphere, 109, 84–91. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.03.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martínez, M. T., Torres, E., & Soto, J. A. (2004). Evaluation of compact heat exchangers of finned tubes. Informacion Tecnologica, 15, 47–54.Google Scholar
- Panizza, M., Brillas, E., & Comninellis, C. (2008). Application of boron-doped diamond electrodes for wastewater treatment. Journal of Environment Engineering Management, 18(3), 139–153.Google Scholar
- Pysmennyy, Y. (2007). Manual para el cálculo de Intercambiadores de calor y bancos de tubos aletados: Cálculo de la transmisión de calor (pp. 6-20). Madrid: RevertéGoogle Scholar
- Robles Dávila, L., Valdés Mejía, J. F., Ortiz Arredondo, F., & Martínez García, L. (2008). Alternative to remove nonylphenol ethoxylate from industrial wastewater by a coupled process: physicochemical, advanced oxidation and adsorption. web.uaemex.mx/Red_Ambientales/docs/congresos/Ciudad%20Obregon/TECNOLOGIA_Y_BIOTECNOLOGIA_AMBIENTAL/TBA035.doc (Congress).
- Schrank, S. G. (2003). Treatment of effluents from the leather industry through advanced oxidation processes. Florianópolis: Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina.Google Scholar