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Lime-Amended Semi-arid Soils in Retaining Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Aqueous Solutions

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Abstract

Most of the chemicals containing non-biodegradable metal pollutants from anthropogenic sources are highly mobile in nature. The only way to contain or limit their movement is through sorption and entrapment in the soil matrices. In this study, the sorptive response of the three most commonly found divalent metal contaminants, copper (Cu+2), lead (Pb+2), and zinc (Zn+2), are studied using two locally available semi-arid soils from Saudi Arabia. To enhance their retention capacity, these soils are amended with lime. The response to sorption at varying initial contaminant concentrations, pH conditions, temperature levels, and dilution ratios are investigated. Relying on empirical models (Langmuir and Freundlich), the nature of sorption (monolayer or heterogeneous) is ascertained. Further, kinetic models are employed to validate the type and nature of sorption that occurs (whether pseudo first-order or second-order). It is found that the experimental results correlate well with these empirical models for both the Al-Ghat and Al-Qatif soils when amended with lime and attenuate Cu, Pb, and Zn to satisfactory levels. The R 2 values are close to 1 for all the tested models. The order of sorption was Pb > Cu > Zn for these heavy metals, and also for soils and soil mixtures that were considered: Al-Qatif soil amended with 6 % lime > Al-Ghat soil with 6 % lime > Al-Qatif > Al-Ghat. Lime-treated soils sorbed 73, 65, and 60 % more than the untreated soils for Pb, Cu, and Zn, respectively.

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Acknowledgment

This project was funded by the National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation (MAARIFAH), King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, award number 12ENV2583-02.

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Correspondence to Arif Ali Baig Moghal.

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Moghal, A.A.B., Reddy, K.R., Mohammed, S.A.S. et al. Lime-Amended Semi-arid Soils in Retaining Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Aqueous Solutions. Water Air Soil Pollut 227, 372 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-016-3054-1

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