A Two-Step Approach to Eliminate Pesticides and Estrogens from a Wastewater and Reduce Its Phytotoxicity: Adsorption onto Plant-Derived Materials and Fungal Degradation
- 342 Downloads
In this study, adsorption and biodegradation were exploited sequentially to remove the herbicide fenuron, the insecticide carbaryl and the estrogens 17β-estradiol (E2) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) from a municipal landfill leachate (MuLL). In the first step, we used spent coffee grounds, almond shells, a biochar and potato dextrose agar to adsorb the compounds spiked in MuLL at a concentration of 1 mg L−1. After only 3 days, any adsorbent removed from MuLL the totality of E2 and OP, averagely more than 95 % of carbaryl and 62 % of fenuron (81 % after 7 days). In the second step, the adsorbents collected from MuLL after 7 days were inoculated with the fungi Bjerkandera adusta and Irpex lacteus, separately. After 7 days, the maximum degradation occurred for OP in any treatment being averagely 78 and 74 % using B. adusta and I. lacteus, respectively. After 15 days, the average percentages of fenuron, carbaryl, E2 and OP degraded were, respectively, 75, 76, 88 and 88 % using B. adusta, and 74, 79, 85 and 89 % using I. lacteus. Residual estrogenicity in the adsorbents, tested with the recombinant yeast assay, was strictly related to residual E2, thus indicating a negligible contribution from the other contaminants and/or degradation products. The 7-day treatment of MuLL with the adsorbents caused a significant abatement of MuLL phytotoxicity on flax (2.5 times seedling elongation with coffee grounds, compared to MuLL) and a huge stimulation of rapeseed respect to water (biomass almost doubled), thus suggesting a possible worthwhile recycling of this wastewater in agriculture.
KeywordsWastewater Estrogen White rot fungus Plant-derived adsorbent Biodegradation Estrogenicity
This work was funded by the University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
- Cassano, D., Zapata, A., Brunetti, G., Del Moro, G., Di Iaconi, C., Oller, I., Malato, S., & Mascolo, G. (2011). Comparison of several combined/integrated biological-AOPs setups for the treatment of municipal landfill leachate: minimization of operating costs and effluent toxicity. Chemical Engineering Journal, 172, 250–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jing, D. J., Huang, J. B., Yang, Z. P., Hu, R., Cheng, Z. Z., & Huang, Q. M. (2011). Induce of laccase from Trametes gallica and its degradation on neutral dyes and organophosphorus pesticides. Journal of Applied Ecology, 22, 3300–3306.Google Scholar
- Mor, S., Kaur, K., & Khaiwal, R. (2013). Growth behavior studies of bread wheat plant exposed to municipal landfill leachate. Journal of Environmental Biolology, 34, 1083–1087.Google Scholar
- Reed, H. W. B. (1978). Alkylphenols. In M. Grayson & D. EcKroth (Eds.), Encyclopedia of chemical technology (pp. 72–96). New York: Kirk-Othmer.Google Scholar
- SEC (2011) 1001. Commission staff working paper. 4th Report on the implementation of the “Community Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters” a range of substances suspected of interfering with the hormone systems of humans and wildlife (COM (1999)706). Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/endocrine/pdf/sec_2011_1001.pdf.
- Sharma, V. K., Anquandah, G. A. K., Yngard, R. A., Kim, H., Fekete, J., Bouzek, K., Ray, A. K., & Golovko, D. (2009). Nonylphenol, octylphenol, and bisphenol-A in the aquatic environment: a review on occurrence, fate, and treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 44, 423–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Soares, A., Vijayram, I. A., Guieysse, B., Murto, M., Guieysse, B., & Mattiasson, B. (2005). Degradation of non-ionic surfactants under anaerobic conditions. In B. E. Rittmann & M. C. M. van Loosdrecht (Eds.), Third IWA leading-edge conference on water and wastewater treatment technologies. Sapporo: IWA Publishing.Google Scholar
- USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (2011). Pesticides industry sales and usage: 2006 and 2007 market estimates. Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/pestsales/07pestsales/market_estimates06–07.pdf.
- Yang, S., Hai, F. I., Nghiem, L. D., Price, W. E., Roddick, F., Moreira, M. T., & Magram, S. F. (2013). Understanding the factors controlling the removal of trace organic contaminants by white-rot fungi and their lignin modifying enzymes: a critical review. Bioresource Technology, 141, 97–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar