Optimization of a Fungally Bioaugmented Biomixture for Carbofuran Removal in On-Farm Biopurification Systems
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- Ruiz-Hidalgo, K., Chin-Pampillo, J.S., Masís-Mora, M. et al. Water Air Soil Pollut (2016) 227: 3. doi:10.1007/s11270-015-2681-2
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Biomixtures comprise the active part of biopurification systems (BPS) for the removal of pesticide-containing wastewater from agricultural origin. Considering that biomixtures contain an important amount of lignocellulosic substrates, their bioaugmentation with degrading ligninolytic fungi represents a promising way to improve BPS. The fungus Trametes versicolor was employed for the bioaugmentation of rice husk-compost-soil (GCS) biomixtures in order to optimize the removal of the highly toxic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CFN). Composition of biomixtures has not been optimized before, and usually, a volumetric composition of 50:25:25 (lignocellulosic substrate:humic component:soil) is employed. Optimization of the biomixture composition was performed with a central composite design, using the volumetric content of rice husk (pre-colonized by the fungus) and the volumetric ratio compost/soil as design variables. Performance of biomixtures was comprehensively assayed considering CFN removal, the production of toxic transformation products (3-hydroxycarbofuran/3-ketocarbofuran), the ability to mineralize [14C]carbofuran, and the residual toxicity in the matrix. According to the models, the optimal volumetric composition of the GCS biomixture is 30:43:27, which maximizes removal and mineralization rate, and minimizes the accumulation of transformation products. Results support the value of assessing new biomixture formulations according to the target pesticide in order to obtain their optimal performance, before their use in BPS.