We analysed nutrients and basic ions (Na, Cl, K, Mg, Si, Ca, and SO4) for a period of 1 year, including every precipitation event, and sampled stream water every 2 weeks from a forest catchment in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Backward-trajectory analysis revealed that some air masses originated within Japan, but did not affect the precipitation chemistry. Air masses originating from northern China were positively correlated with nutrients and all basic ions. Concentrations of ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen were much lower in stream water than in precipitation, while those of nitrate and particulate nitrogen were similar in stream water and precipitation. Unlike nitrogen, the dissolved phosphorus concentration was much higher in stream water than in precipitation. Both phosphate and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) levels were higher in stream water than in precipitation. Particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations were very similar in precipitation and stream water. PP showed stronger correlations than potassium with suspended solids (SS) and flow rate, while phosphate and DOP were more strongly correlated with potassium than with SS or flow rate. Stream silica concentrations were not correlated with phosphate but did exhibit a significant negative correlation with DOP. Neither phosphate nor DOP was correlated with calcium. These results suggest that phosphorus is not leaching with silica or calcium as a paired cation, but rather with potassium in this area. Lower nitrogen concentrations in stream water than in precipitation can be attributed to an enhanced uptake of nitrogen by forest soils owing to the increased atmospheric deposition of phosphorus.
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Misato Hironaka helped with data processing and the illustration of figures. This study was partly supported by a grant from the River Works Technology Research and Development Program of the Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism.
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Tabayashi, Y., Kamiya, H., Godo, T. et al. Atmospheric Phosphorus and Nitrogen Originating in China: Forest Deposition and Infiltration of Stream Water in Japan. Water Air Soil Pollut 226, 385 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-015-2650-9
- Backward trajectory
- Atmospheric deposition